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Difference between revisions of "Adding JavaScript"

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(Adding Javascript Files Using JHTML)
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{{cookiejar}}
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{{version/tutor|1.5,2.5,3.0}}
===Adding JavaScript===
+
----
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This chunk should describe in detail how to add JavaScript to the head of
+
a template using the Joomla! 1.5 API calls. It should be aimed at
+
people who have only minimal knowledge of PHP, HTML and JavaScript.
+
----
+
[[Category:Templates]]
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[[Category:Modules]]
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[[Category:Components]]
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[[Category:Plugins]]
+
  
Add the following code to have the javascript library /media/system/js/sample.js included in your template.
+
JavaScript (also known as ECMAScript) is a scripting language primarily used in client-side web site development to extend and enhance an end-user's experience. Joomla provides developers with easy-to-use mechanisms to include JavaScript in their extensions using existing API methods.
  
 +
There are a number of methods for including JavaScript in your Joomla extensions; some of these are described below.
  
<?php
+
==Usage==
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
+
$document->addScript( '/media/system/js/sample.js' );
+
?>
+
  
 +
There are three methods for embedding JavaScript into your code using the Joomla API; [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScriptDeclaration JDocument::addScriptDeclaration], [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScript JDocument::addScript] and [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html#script script]. These methods should be called either in your component's View class (<yourcomponent>/views/<yourview>/view.html.php) or template script (<yourcomponent>/views/<yourview>/tmpl/<yourtemplate>.php or in the case of a module, in its template script (<yourmodule>/tmpl/<yourtemplate>.php).
  
==Explanation==
+
===Inline JavaScript===
  
Ultimately you are trying to have the resulting HTML page have in the <head> ... </head> area have a javascript include:
+
Blocks of JavaScript code can be declared directly within a component or module's display template using the [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html JDocument] class' [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScriptDeclaration addScriptDeclaration] method:
  
For Example:
+
<source lang="php">
<script type="text/javascript" src="/media/system/js/sample.js"></script>
+
<?php
 +
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
 +
$document->addScriptDeclaration('
 +
    window.event("domready", function() {
 +
        alert("An inline JavaScript Declaration");
 +
    });
 +
');
 +
?>
 +
</source>
  
Ensure that the javascript you want to include is in the directory,  from the above example:
+
===External JavaScript===
/media/system/js/sample.js
+
  
 +
Alternatively, you may wish to separate your JavaScript into a separate file. Separating your JavaScript into an external file can make your template code easier to read especially if the JavaScript is lengthy or complex.
  
When you are able to load both your page and see the <script> tag in the <head> area, and be able to load the javascript from the address
+
There are two ways to include a JavaScript file using the Joomla API. The first involves using the [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html JDocument] class' [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScript addScript] method:
  
Again, using the example:
+
<source lang="php">
  <nowiki>http://www.example.com/media/system/js/sample.js</nowiki>
+
<?php
 +
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
 +
$document->addScript('/media/system/js/sample.js');
 +
?>
 +
</source>
  
Then the script is integrated into your page, and you can proceed to using javascript in your HTML.
+
The second uses the [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html JHTML] class' [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html#script script] method:
  
Do not directly add the <script> to your template's index.php.
+
<source lang="php">
 +
<?php
 +
// Add the path parameter if the path is different than 'media/system/js/'
 +
JHTML::script('sample.js', 'templates/custom/js/');
 +
?>
 +
</source>
  
The code will insert the the <script> line where your index.php has the following line:
+
==Description==
 +
The Joomla API's [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScriptDeclaration JDocument::addScriptDeclaration], [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScript JDocument::addScript] and [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html#script script] methods embed JavaScript into Joomla's index.php via the jdoc head tag:
  
<jdoc:include type="head" />
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<source lang="html4strict">
 +
<jdoc:include type="head"/>
 +
</source>
  
Add this PHP code to your page, in the head, or next to the javascript code you will use, depending on your preference.
+
Using the [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScript JDocument::addScript] or [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html#script script] methods to embed JavaScript includes would result in the index.php rendering the following HTML:
  
<?php
+
<source lang="html4strict">
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
+
<head>
$document->addScript( '/media/system/js/sample.js' );
+
...
?>
+
<script type="text/javaScript" src="/media/system/js/sample.js"></script>
 +
...
 +
</head>
 +
</source>
  
 
+
Calling the class method [http://api.joomla.org/1.5/Joomla-Framework/Document/JDocument.html#addScriptDeclaration JDocument::addScriptDeclaration] would render the following HTML:
Reload your template and view the page, and ensure that the sample.js is included in the <head>
+
  
 +
<source lang="html4strict">
 +
<head>
 +
...
 +
<script type="text/javaScript">
 +
window.addEvent("domready", function() {
 +
    alert("Embedded block of JS here");
 +
});
 +
</script>
 +
...
 +
</head>
 +
</source>
  
 +
Using these methods is highly recommended as it clearly differentiates another scripting language (JavaScript) from the main PHP code, ensures all JavaScript is correctly embedded between the <head></head> tags and, in the case of JDocument::addScript and JHTML::script ensures that a JavaScript file is included only once (I.e. there is no .js file duplication).
  
== Adding Javascript Files Using JHTML ==
+
== Using a JavaScript Framework ==
  
You may also use the [http://api.joomla.org/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html JHTML] [http://api.joomla.org/Joomla-Framework/HTML/JHTML.html#script script] method to add a javascript file to the head of your document.
+
A Javascript framework provides developers with generic functionality for handling various coding tasks in a familiar, consistent and platform-independent way. A framework enables the developer to forget about the intricacies of implementing a certain function in different web browsers and focus on the requirements of the software.
  
<?php
+
Two Javascript frameworks are provided as part of Joomla 3.0; JQuery and Mootools. JQuery is a newly introduced framework which integrates with Joomla's new Bootstrap HTML framework; Mootools is Joomla's legacy Javascript library which is now superseded by JQuery and is included for backwards compatibility with 3rd party extensions.
    $filename = 'path/to/file/filename.js';
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    JHTML::script($filename);
+
?>
+
  
 +
In nearly all cases you should use a framework when developing Javascript in your extensions or templates and including one is very simple with Joomla's API.
  
There is a second parameter that can be passed to the script method. The parameter is a boolean (true/false). You would set this to true if you wanted MooTools loaded as well.
+
=== JQuery ===
  
<?php
+
As of Joomla 3.0 it is highly recommended you use the JQuery framework for all your Javascript as it is loaded by nearly every template which uses the Bootstrap HTML/CSS framework. In those few instances where JQuery is not available, you can easily include the framework using the JHTMLJQuery class' framework method.
    $filename = 'path/to/file/filename.js';
+
    JHTML::script($filename, true); // MooTools will load if it is not already loaded
+
?>
+
  
'''Please Note: Joomla 1.6+ may or may not handle MooTools differently than in previous versions.'''<ref>[http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=502&t=273960 Whitepaper] Upgrade to mootools 1.2</ref>
+
To include the JQuery framework in your extension, you add the following code to your view.html.php or tmpl file:
  
== References ==
+
<source lang="php">
<references/>
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JHtml::_('jquery.framework');
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
Using the framework method ensures JQuery is included correctly, only once, and ensures it doesn't clash with Mootools (if also loaded).
 +
 
 +
Then it is just a matter of leveraging the JQuery framework:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
JFactory::getDocument()->addScriptDeclaration('
 +
(function($) {
 +
    $(document).ready(function() {
 +
        alert($("#list li").size());
 +
    });
 +
})(jQuery);
 +
');
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
More information about JQuery is available at http://docs.jquery.com/How_jQuery_Works. For API documentation, visit http://docs.jquery.com/.
 +
 
 +
=== Mootools ===
 +
 
 +
Unless you are maintaining Javascript code which leverages Mootools or you are developing an extension for a Joomla version prior to 3.0 it is recommended you use JQuery instead.
 +
 
 +
Firstly, you will need to include the Mootools code in your extension. To include the Mootools framework in your extension, you add the following code to your view.html.php or tmpl file:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
JHtml::_('behavior.framework');
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
The above code results in the same outcome as the similar JQuery framework statement; that is it ensures Mootools is included correctly and only once.
 +
 
 +
Then using Mootools is almost identical to JQuery:
 +
 
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
JFactory::getDocument()->addScriptDeclaration('
 +
window.addEvent("domready", function() {
 +
    alert($("list").getElements("li").length);
 +
});
 +
');
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
More information about Mootools is available at http://mootools.net/. For API documentation, visit http://mootools.net/docs/core.
 +
 
 +
== See Also ==
 +
 
 +
[[JHtmlBehavior::framework/11.1| JHtmlBehaviour::framework method]] from the Joomla! Framework 11.1 documentation
 +
 
 +
[[Ajax using MooTools]]
 +
 
 +
[[Adding Javascript moo.fx to your component]]
 +
 
 +
== External Links ==
 +
http://api.joomla.org/Joomla-Platform/HTML/JHtmlBehavior.html#methodframework
 +
 
 +
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript
 +
 
 +
http://www.w3schools.com/js/default.asp
 +
 
 +
http://mootools.net/
 +
 
 +
http://jquery.com/
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Templates]]
 +
[[Category:Modules]]
 +
[[Category:Components]]
 +
[[Category:Plugins]]
 +
[[Category:Tutorials]]

Revision as of 11:49, 15 November 2012

JavaScript (also known as ECMAScript) is a scripting language primarily used in client-side web site development to extend and enhance an end-user's experience. Joomla provides developers with easy-to-use mechanisms to include JavaScript in their extensions using existing API methods.

There are a number of methods for including JavaScript in your Joomla extensions; some of these are described below.

Contents

Usage

There are three methods for embedding JavaScript into your code using the Joomla API; JDocument::addScriptDeclaration, JDocument::addScript and script. These methods should be called either in your component's View class (<yourcomponent>/views/<yourview>/view.html.php) or template script (<yourcomponent>/views/<yourview>/tmpl/<yourtemplate>.php or in the case of a module, in its template script (<yourmodule>/tmpl/<yourtemplate>.php).

Inline JavaScript

Blocks of JavaScript code can be declared directly within a component or module's display template using the JDocument class' addScriptDeclaration method:

<?php
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
$document->addScriptDeclaration('
    window.event("domready", function() {
        alert("An inline JavaScript Declaration");
    });
');
?>

External JavaScript

Alternatively, you may wish to separate your JavaScript into a separate file. Separating your JavaScript into an external file can make your template code easier to read especially if the JavaScript is lengthy or complex.

There are two ways to include a JavaScript file using the Joomla API. The first involves using the JDocument class' addScript method:

<?php
$document = &JFactory::getDocument();
$document->addScript('/media/system/js/sample.js');
?>

The second uses the JHTML class' script method:

<?php
// Add the path parameter if the path is different than 'media/system/js/'
JHTML::script('sample.js', 'templates/custom/js/');
?>

Description

The Joomla API's JDocument::addScriptDeclaration, JDocument::addScript and script methods embed JavaScript into Joomla's index.php via the jdoc head tag:

<jdoc:include type="head"/>

Using the JDocument::addScript or script methods to embed JavaScript includes would result in the index.php rendering the following HTML:

<head>
...
<script type="text/javaScript" src="/media/system/js/sample.js"></script>
...
</head>

Calling the class method JDocument::addScriptDeclaration would render the following HTML:

<head>
...
<script type="text/javaScript">
window.addEvent("domready", function() {
    alert("Embedded block of JS here");
});
</script>
...
</head>

Using these methods is highly recommended as it clearly differentiates another scripting language (JavaScript) from the main PHP code, ensures all JavaScript is correctly embedded between the <head></head> tags and, in the case of JDocument::addScript and JHTML::script ensures that a JavaScript file is included only once (I.e. there is no .js file duplication).

Using a JavaScript Framework

A Javascript framework provides developers with generic functionality for handling various coding tasks in a familiar, consistent and platform-independent way. A framework enables the developer to forget about the intricacies of implementing a certain function in different web browsers and focus on the requirements of the software.

Two Javascript frameworks are provided as part of Joomla 3.0; JQuery and Mootools. JQuery is a newly introduced framework which integrates with Joomla's new Bootstrap HTML framework; Mootools is Joomla's legacy Javascript library which is now superseded by JQuery and is included for backwards compatibility with 3rd party extensions.

In nearly all cases you should use a framework when developing Javascript in your extensions or templates and including one is very simple with Joomla's API.

JQuery

As of Joomla 3.0 it is highly recommended you use the JQuery framework for all your Javascript as it is loaded by nearly every template which uses the Bootstrap HTML/CSS framework. In those few instances where JQuery is not available, you can easily include the framework using the JHTMLJQuery class' framework method.

To include the JQuery framework in your extension, you add the following code to your view.html.php or tmpl file:

JHtml::_('jquery.framework');

Using the framework method ensures JQuery is included correctly, only once, and ensures it doesn't clash with Mootools (if also loaded).

Then it is just a matter of leveraging the JQuery framework:

JFactory::getDocument()->addScriptDeclaration('
(function($) {
    $(document).ready(function() {
        alert($("#list li").size());
    });
})(jQuery);
');

More information about JQuery is available at http://docs.jquery.com/How_jQuery_Works. For API documentation, visit http://docs.jquery.com/.

Mootools

Unless you are maintaining Javascript code which leverages Mootools or you are developing an extension for a Joomla version prior to 3.0 it is recommended you use JQuery instead.

Firstly, you will need to include the Mootools code in your extension. To include the Mootools framework in your extension, you add the following code to your view.html.php or tmpl file:

JHtml::_('behavior.framework');

The above code results in the same outcome as the similar JQuery framework statement; that is it ensures Mootools is included correctly and only once.

Then using Mootools is almost identical to JQuery:

JFactory::getDocument()->addScriptDeclaration('
window.addEvent("domready", function() {
    alert($("list").getElements("li").length);
});
');

More information about Mootools is available at http://mootools.net/. For API documentation, visit http://mootools.net/docs/core.

See Also

JHtmlBehaviour::framework method from the Joomla! Framework 11.1 documentation

Ajax using MooTools

Adding Javascript moo.fx to your component

External Links

http://api.joomla.org/Joomla-Platform/HTML/JHtmlBehavior.html#methodframework

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript

http://www.w3schools.com/js/default.asp

http://mootools.net/

http://jquery.com/