Search engine friendly (SEF), human-readable or clean URLs are URLs that make sense to both humans and search engines because they explain the path to the particular page they point to. Since version 1.5, Joomla! is capable of creating and parsing URLs in any format, including SEF URLs. This does not depend on URL rewriting executed by the web server, so it works even if Joomla! runs a server other than Apache with the mod_rewrite module. The SEF URLs follow a certain fixed pattern, but the user can define a short descriptive text (alias) for each segment of the URL.
Internally, the local part of a SEF URL (the part after the domain name) is called a route. Creating and processing SEF URLs is therefore referred to as routing, and the relevant code is called a router.
This article addresses SEF URLs under the popular, open-source Apache webserver. SEF URL implementation is possible under Microsoft's IIS webserver as well, please see Enabling Search Engine Friendly (SEF) URLs on IIS.
In Joomla! 1.6, basic SEF urls are enabled by default. In prior versions you need to use the Global Configuration to enable them. The instructions below still apply if you want to use Apache's mod_rewrite.
These are step-by-step instructions. Please follow them in the order they are presented here. If a step fails, do not continue until you have solved the problem.
htaccess.txtin your Joomla!'s base folder to
.htaccessin a text editor. Uncomment
RewriteBase /(remove the first character, #). If Joomla is installed in its own folder, the enter the Joomla folder name after the backslash. e.g.
apache/conf/httpd.conf, open that file and check if the line
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.sois uncommented. If necessary, uncomment the line and restart the Apache web server.
.htmlto the end of URLs. There are different opinions on whether this is necessary or even useful. Search engines do not seem to care if your URLs end in