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Difference between revisions of "Htaccess examples (security)"

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([e439c8e078] 2011-04-15 14:05 (3.2.d) Typos. Remove "html?" from two RegEx patterns. Fix [F] to [L]. Fix [L] to [F]. The latter two were typos introduced in earlier revisions.)
(Reordered page sections. Expanded warning note)
(19 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
__TOC__
 
''Credit for part of this .htaccess file goes to Ronald van den Heetkamp''
 
  
For this to work you need RewriteEngine set to On, and will likely also need Options +FollowSymLinks too:
+
{{DISPLAYTITLE:htaccess examples (security)}}__TOC__
 +
''Credit for this .htaccess file goes to Ronald van den Heetkamp, Nicholas Dionysopoulos, g1smd, and others where listed''
  
<source lang="apache">
+
== Suggested Master htaccess file ==
# mod_rewrite in use
+
RewriteEngine On
+
Options +FollowSymLinks
+
</source>
+
  
== Block bad user agents ==
+
This can be discussed in [http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841&start=330#p2555002 this forum topic]
<source lang="apache">
+
########## Block bad user agents
+
## The following list may include bots that no longer exist or are not a problem
+
## for your site. The list will always be incomplete and it is therefore wise to
+
## follow discussions on one of the many "security" mailing lists or on a forum
+
## such as http://www.webmasterworld.com/search_engine_spiders/
+
## It is also unwise to rely on this list as your ONLY security mechanism.
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^BlackWidow [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Bot\ mailto:craftbot@yahoo.com [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ChinaClaw [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Custo [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^DISCo [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Download\ Demon [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^eCatch [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EirGrabber [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailSiphon [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailWolf [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Express\ WebPictures [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ExtractorPro [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EyeNetIE [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^FlashGet [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetRight [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetWeb! [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go!Zilla [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go-Ahead-Got-It [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GrabNet [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Grafula [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^HMView [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} HTTrack [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Stripper [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Sucker [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Indy\ Library [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^InterGET [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Internet\ Ninja [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JetCar [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JOC\ Web\ Spider [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^larbin [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^LeechFTP [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mass\ Downloader [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MIDown\ tool [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mister\ PiX [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Navroad [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NearSite [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetAnts [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetSpider [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Net\ Vampire [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetZIP [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Octopus [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Explorer [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Navigator [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^PageGrabber [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Papa\ Foto [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pavuk [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pcBrowser [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^RealDownload [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ReGet [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SiteSnagger [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SmartDownload [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperBot [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperHTTP [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Surfbot [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^tAkeOut [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Teleport\ Pro [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^VoidEYE [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Image\ Collector [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Sucker [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebAuto [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebCopier [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebFetch [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebGo\ IS [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebLeacher [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebReaper [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebSauger [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ eXtractor [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ Quester [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebStripper [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebWhacker [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebZIP [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Widow [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WWWOFFLE [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Xaldon\ WebSpider [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Zeus
+
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
+
  
## Return 403 Forbidden error.
+
'''Warning: Read the hashed areas! Incorrect settings on some servers may cause 500 page errors. The only way to figure out which rule(s) or section(s) are causing the errors is by trial and error.'''
RewriteRule .* - [F]
+
</source>
+
  
== Other useful settings ==
+
This .htaccess file is not meant to be just dropped in your site. You should go through all sections and modify the file to match your site. Most notably, all instances of example.com and example\.com should be replaced with your real domain name. Some sections may cause problems with legitimate requests.
<source lang="apache">
+
ServerSignature Off
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(HEAD|TRACE|DELETE|TRACK) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (\\r|\\n|%0A|%0D) [NC,OR]
+
  
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
+
You are ultimately responsible for disabling sections or writing exception rules for legitimate requests that fail. Most notably, the advanced server protection section will cause issues with several minifiers, eXtplorer, VirtueMart and other extensions which use non-standard scripts as their entry points. You must add exceptions manually to the proper area of the file.
RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(,|;|:|<|>|”>|”<|/|\\\.\.\\).{0,9999} [NC,OR]
+
 
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|scan) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
+
+
#Block mySQL injects
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (;|<|>|’|”|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|cast|set|declare|drop|update|md5|benchmark) [NC,OR]
+
 
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.\./\.\. [OR]
+
 
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.[a-z0-9] [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC]
+
# Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
+
 
+
# Return 403 Forbidden error.
+
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
+
</source>
+
 
+
 
+
== Suggested Master htaccess file ==
+
 
+
This can be discussed in [http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841 this forum topic]
+
 
+
'''Warning: note the hashed areas. Incorrect settings on some servers may cause 500 page errors'''
+
  
 
<source lang="apache">
 
<source lang="apache">
Line 140: Line 17:
 
## The Master .htaccess
 
## The Master .htaccess
 
##
 
##
## Version 3.2 - April 8th, 2011
+
## Version 2.5 (proposed) - May 16th, 2011
 
##
 
##
 
## ----------
 
## ----------
Line 184: Line 61:
 
##
 
##
 
## CHANGELOG:
 
## CHANGELOG:
## Version 3.2 (April 8th, 2011)
+
## Version 2.5 (proposed) (May 16th, 2011)
## - Some slight improvements with negligible (if any) performance impact
+
## - Placeholders for custom code. Correction of ruleset ordering.
## Version 3.1 (April 5th, 2011)
+
## Version 2.4 (April 18th, 2011)
## - Expiration time of static resources adjusted to 1 month instead of 1 year
+
## - Dozens of speed optimisations and many logic and syntax corrections.
## - GET variables not passed along in the index.php to site root redirection
+
## - Fixed typos
+
## - Alternative for HTTP to HTTPS redirection
+
## - Common exploits protection: Minor changes in comments, combined base64_encode/base64_decode rule
+
## - Bug in query string protection rule
+
## - Back-end & front-end protection optimization
+
## - Fixed the UNION SELECT SQLi rule to actually work against real attacks
+
## - Added comments to Joomla! core SEF section
+
## Version 3.0 (March 28th, 2011)
+
## - Massive rewrite
+
 
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
 
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
 
## - Added .ico to the pass-through rules, for favicons to load
 
## - Added .ico to the pass-through rules, for favicons to load
Line 219: Line 86:
  
 
########## Begin - RewriteBase
 
########## Begin - RewriteBase
# Uncomment following line if your webserver's URL
+
# Uncomment following line if your webserver's URL
# is not directly related to physical file paths.
+
# is not directly related to physical file paths.
# Update Your Joomla! Directory (just / for root)
+
# Update Your Joomla! Directory (just / for root)
  
 
# RewriteBase /
 
# RewriteBase /
Line 243: Line 110:
 
FileETag MTime Size
 
FileETag MTime Size
 
########## End - ETag Optimization
 
########## End - ETag Optimization
 
########## Begin - Optimal default expiration time
 
## Note: this might cause problems and you might have to comment it out by
 
## placing a hash in front of this section's lines
 
## Note: Some people prefer using "now plus 1 month" instead of "now plus 1 year".
 
## Suit to taste.
 
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
 
# Enable expiration control
 
ExpiresActive On
 
 
# Default expiration: 1 hour after request
 
ExpiresDefault "now plus 1 hour"
 
 
# CSS and JS expiration: 1 week after request
 
ExpiresByType text/css "now plus 1 week"
 
ExpiresByType application/javascript "now plus 1 week"
 
ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "now plus 1 week"
 
 
# Image files expiration: 1 month after request
 
ExpiresByType image/bmp "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/gif "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/jp2 "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/pipeg "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/png "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/tiff "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/ico "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/icon "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType text/ico "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType application/ico "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType image/vnd.wap.wbmp "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType application/vnd.wap.wbxml "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType application/smil "now plus 1 month"
 
 
# Audio files expiration: 1 month after request
 
ExpiresByType audio/basic "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/mid "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/midi "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/x-aiff "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/x-mpegurl "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/x-pn-realaudio "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType audio/x-wav "now plus 1 month"
 
 
# Movie files expiration: 1 month after request
 
ExpiresByType application/x-shockwave-flash "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType x-world/x-vrml "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/x-msvideo "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/quicktime "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/x-la-asf "now plus 1 month"
 
ExpiresByType video/x-ms-asf "now plus 1 month"
 
</IfModule>
 
########## End - Optimal expiration time
 
  
 
########## Begin - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
 
########## Begin - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
Line 331: Line 140:
 
########## End - Automatic compression of resources
 
########## End - Automatic compression of resources
  
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
+
########## Begin - Add optional bad user agent or IP blocking code
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
+
#
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
+
# If you need to block certain user agents or IP addresses and
## If the above doesn't work on your server, try this:
+
# other signatures, place that code here. Ensure the rules use
## RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R,L]
+
# the correct RewriteRule syntax and the [F] flag.
########## End - Google Apps redirection
+
#
 
+
########## End - Add optional bad user agent or IP blocking code
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
+
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain
+
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
+
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
+
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
+
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
# If the above line throws a 500 error, try this instead:
+
# RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R,L]
+
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
+
 
+
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
+
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
+
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
+
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
+
 
+
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
+
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
+
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
+
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
+
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
+
 
+
########## Begin - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
+
## Note: olddomain.com is your old domain name, you want to redirect FROM,
+
## whereas www.example.com is the new domain name you want to redirect TO.
+
## Change those names to reflect your current configuration. Remember, this
+
## part of the file is supposed to be placed in www.olddomain.com!
+
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
+
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
+
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
########## End - Redirect olddomain.com to www.domain.com
+
 
+
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
+
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
+
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
+
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
+
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
+
# to work.
+
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
+
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
+
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
+
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
+
# Add more rules below this line
+
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
+
  
 
########## Begin - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
 
########## Begin - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
Line 392: Line 154:
 
# If the request query string contains /proc/self/environ (by SigSiu.net)
 
# If the request query string contains /proc/self/environ (by SigSiu.net)
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
# Legacy variable injection (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
+
# Block out any script trying to set a mosConfig value through the URL
 +
# (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode/base64_decode data to send via URL
+
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode or base64_decode data within the URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code\(.*\) [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [OR]
 
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
 
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
 
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
 
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
Line 405: Line 168:
 
# Block out any script trying to modify a _REQUEST variable via URL
 
# Block out any script trying to modify a _REQUEST variable via URL
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2})
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2})
# Return a 403 Forbidden header and show the content of the root homepage
+
# Return 403 Forbidden header and show the content of the root homepage
 
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
 
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
 
#
 
#
Line 417: Line 180:
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
########## End - File injection protection
 
########## End - File injection protection
 +
 +
########## Begin - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
 +
## I removed some common words, tweak to your liking
 +
## This code uses PCRE and works only with Apache 2.x.
 +
## This code will NOT work with Apache 1.x servers.
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ambien|blue\spill|cialis|cocaine|ejaculation|erectile)\b [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(erections|hoodia|huronriveracres|impotence|levitra|libido)\b [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(lipitor|phentermin|pro[sz]ac|sandyauer|tramadol|troyhamby)\b [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ultram|unicauca|valium|viagra|vicodin|xanax|ypxaieo)\b [NC]
 +
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 +
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 +
## Note: The previous lines are a "compressed" version
 +
## of the filters. You can add your own filters as:
 +
## RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \bbadword\b [NC,OR]
 +
## where "badword" is the word you want to exclude.
 +
########## End - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
 +
 +
########## Begin - Advanced server protection - query strings, referrer and config
 +
# Advanced server protection, version 3.2 - May 2011
 +
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 +
 +
## Disallow PHP Easter Eggs (can be used in fingerprinting attacks to determine
 +
## your PHP version). See http://www.0php.com/php_easter_egg.php and
 +
## http://osvdb.org/12184 for more information
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12} [NC]
 +
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 +
 +
## SQLi first line of defense, thanks to Radek Suski (SigSiu.net) @
 +
## http://www.sigsiu.net/presentations/fortifying_your_joomla_website.html
 +
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
 +
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 +
 +
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain name.
 +
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
 +
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting the
 +
## dots with \.  i.e. use www\.example\.com for www.example.com
 +
RewriteRule ^images/stories/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [L]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
 +
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [F]
 +
 +
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
 +
## Initial idea by Brian Teeman and Ken Crowder, see:
 +
## http://www.slideshare.net/brianteeman/hidden-joomla-secrets
 +
## Improved by @nikosdion to work more efficiently and handle template
 +
## and tmpl query parameters
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)tmpl=(component|system) [NC]
 +
RewriteRule .* - [L]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)t(p|emplate|mpl)= [NC]
 +
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 +
 +
## Disallow access to htaccess.txt, configuration.php, configuration.php-dist and php.ini
 +
RewriteRule ^(htaccess\.txt|configuration\.php(-dist)?|php\.ini)$ - [F]
 +
 +
########## End - Advanced server protection - query strings, referrer and config
  
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
 
##
 
##
## These are sample exceptions to the Advanced Server Protection 3.0
+
## These are sample exceptions to the Advanced Server Protection 3.1
 
## rule set further down this file.
 
## rule set further down this file.
 
##
 
##
Line 440: Line 262:
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
 
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
  
Line 453: Line 276:
 
########## End - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
 
########## End - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
  
########## Begin - Advanced server protection
+
########## Begin - Advanced server protection - paths and files
# Advanced server protection, version 2.0 - August 2010
+
# Advanced server protection, version 3.2 - May 2011
 
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain.
 
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
 
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting the
 
## dots with \., i.e.: www\.example\.com for www.example.com
 
RewriteRule ^images/stories/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
 
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [F]
 
 
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
 
## Initial idea by Brian Teeman and Ken Crowder, see:
 
## http://www.slideshare.net/brianteeman/hidden-joomla-secrets
 
## Improved by @nikosdion to work more efficiently and handle template
 
## and tmpl query parameters
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)tmpl=(component|system) [NC]
 
RewriteRule .* - [L]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)t(p|emplate|mpl)= [NC]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
 
## Disallow PHP Easter Eggs (can be used in fingerprinting attacks to determine
 
## your PHP version). See http://www.0php.com/php_easter_egg.php and
 
## http://osvdb.org/12184 for more information
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[a-f0-9]{8}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{4}-[a-f0-9]{12} [NC]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
  
 
## Back-end protection
 
## Back-end protection
Line 487: Line 285:
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
+
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
  
Line 499: Line 297:
  
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
+
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
 
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
 
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
 
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
 
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
Line 506: Line 304:
 
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
 
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
 
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
 
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
# RewriteRule ^templates/[^.]+\.php$ - [L]
+
# RewriteRule ^templates/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+php$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
 
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
  
## Disallow rogue scripts in your site's root
+
## Disallow access to rogue PHP files throughout the site, unless they are explicitly allowed
# Exception: Allow Joomla!'s index.php and index2.php files
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} \.php$
RewriteRule ^index2?\.php$ - [L]
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !/index[23]?\.php$
RewriteRule ^[^.]+\.php$ - [F]
+
## The next line is to explicitly allow the forum post assistant(fpa-xx)script to run
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !/fpa-[a-z]{2}\.php
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
 +
RewriteRule ^([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+php$ - [F]
  
## Disallow access to htaccess.txt and configuration.php-dist
+
########## End - Advanced server protection - paths and files
RewriteRule ^(htaccess\.txt|configuration\.php-dist|php\.ini)$ - [F]
+
  
## SQLi first line of defense, thanks to Radek Suski (SigSiu.net) @
+
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
## http://www.sigsiu.net/presentations/fortifying_your_joomla_website.html
+
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
+
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
+
## If the above doesn't work on your server, try this:
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
+
## RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R,L]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
+
########## End - Google Apps redirection
RewriteRule .* - [F]
+
  
########## End - Advanced server protection
+
########## Begin - Custom redirects
 +
#
 +
# If you need to redirect some pages, place that code here. Ensure those
 +
# redirects use the correct RewriteRule syntax and the [R=301,L] flags.
 +
#
 +
########## End - Custom redirects
  
########## Begin - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
+
########## Begin - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
## I removed some common words, tweak to your liking
+
## Note: olddomain.com is your old domain name, you want to redirect FROM,
## This code uses PCRE and works only with Apache 2.x.
+
## whereas www.example.com is the new domain name you want to redirect TO.
## This code will NOT work with Apache 1.x servers.
+
## Change those names to reflect your current configuration. Remember, this
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ambien|blue\spill|cialis|cocaine|ejaculation|erectile)\b [NC,OR]
+
## small part of the file is supposed to be placed in www.olddomain.com!
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(erections|hoodia|huronriveracres|impotence|levitra|libido)\b [NC,OR]
+
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(lipitor|phentermin|pro[sz]ac|sandyauer|tramadol|troyhamby)\b [NC,OR]
+
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ultram|unicauca|valium|viagra|vicodin|xanax|ypxaieo)\b [NC]
+
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
+
## Note: The above section is only required if you are changing your domain name.
## Note: The previous lines are a "compressed" version
+
########## End - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
## of the filters. You can add your own filters as:
+
 
## RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \bbadword\b [NC,OR]
+
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
## where "badword" is the word you want to exclude
+
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
########## End - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
+
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
 +
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
 +
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
 +
# to work.
 +
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
 +
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
 +
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
 +
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
 +
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 +
# Add more rules below this line as required
 +
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 +
 
 +
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
 +
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
 +
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
 +
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
 +
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
 +
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
 +
## If the above line throws a 500 error, change [R=301,L] to [R,L]
 +
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
 +
 
 +
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
 +
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
 +
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 +
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 +
 
 +
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
 +
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
 +
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
 +
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
 +
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 +
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 +
 
 +
########## Begin - Custom internal rewrites
 +
#
 +
# If you need to internally rewrite some specific URL requests,
 +
# place that code here. Ensure those internal rewrites use the
 +
# correct RewriteRule syntax without domain name and with [L] flag.
 +
#
 +
########## End - Custom internal rewrites
  
 
########## Begin - Joomla! core SEF Section
 
########## Begin - Joomla! core SEF Section
 
#
 
#
 
RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
 
RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
 +
#
 
# If the requested path and file is not /index.php and the request
 
# If the requested path and file is not /index.php and the request
 
# has not already been internally rewritten to the index.php script
 
# has not already been internally rewritten to the index.php script
Line 551: Line 396:
 
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
 
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
 
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
 
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /component/|(/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /component/|(/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|vcf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]
 
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
 
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# and the requested path and file doesn't match a physical folder
+
# and the requested path doesn't directly match a physical folder
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
 
# internally rewrite the request to the index.php script
 
# internally rewrite the request to the index.php script
Line 560: Line 405:
 
#
 
#
 
########## End - Joomla! core SEF Section
 
########## End - Joomla! core SEF Section
 +
 +
########## Begin - Optimal default expiration time
 +
## Note: this might cause problems and you might have to comment it out by
 +
## placing a hash in front of this section's lines
 +
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
 +
# Enable expiration control
 +
ExpiresActive On
 +
 +
# Default expiration: 1 hour after request
 +
ExpiresDefault "now plus 1 hour"
 +
 +
# CSS and JS expiration: 1 week after request
 +
ExpiresByType text/css "now plus 1 week"
 +
ExpiresByType application/javascript "now plus 1 week"
 +
ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "now plus 1 week"
 +
 +
# Image files expiration: 1 month after request
 +
ExpiresByType image/bmp "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/gif "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/jp2 "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/pipeg "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/png "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/tiff "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/ico "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/icon "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType text/ico "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType application/ico "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType image/vnd.wap.wbmp "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType application/vnd.wap.wbxml "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType application/smil "now plus 1 month"
 +
 +
# Audio files expiration: 1 month after request
 +
ExpiresByType audio/basic "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/mid "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/midi "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/x-aiff "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/x-mpegurl "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/x-pn-realaudio "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType audio/x-wav "now plus 1 month"
 +
 +
# Movie files expiration: 1 month after request
 +
ExpiresByType application/x-shockwave-flash "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType x-world/x-vrml "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/x-msvideo "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/quicktime "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/x-la-asf "now plus 1 month"
 +
ExpiresByType video/x-ms-asf "now plus 1 month"
 +
</IfModule>
 +
########## End - Optimal expiration time
 +
</source>
 +
 +
If not using the suggested master htaccess file, the following suggestions will need RewriteEngine set to On, and will likely also need Options +FollowSymLinks too:
 +
 +
<source lang="apache">
 +
# mod_rewrite in use
 +
RewriteEngine On
 +
Options +FollowSymLinks
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Other useful settings ==
 +
<source lang="apache">
 +
ServerSignature Off
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(HEAD|TRACE|DELETE|TRACK) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (\\r|\\n|%0A|%0D) [NC,OR]
 +
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(,|;|:|<|>|”>|”<|/|\\\.\.\\).{0,9999} [NC,OR]
 +
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|scan) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 +
 +
#Block mySQL injects
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (;|<|>|’|”|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|cast|set|declare|drop|update|md5|benchmark) [NC,OR]
 +
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.\./\.\. [OR]
 +
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.[a-z0-9] [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC]
 +
# Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 +
 +
# Return 403 Forbidden error.
 +
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Block bad user agents ==
 +
<source lang="apache">
 +
########## Block bad user agents
 +
## The following list may include bots that no longer exist or are not a problem
 +
## for your site. The list will always be incomplete and it is therefore wise to
 +
## follow discussions on one of the many "security" mailing lists or on a forum
 +
## such as http://www.webmasterworld.com/search_engine_spiders/
 +
## It is also unwise to rely on this list as your ONLY security mechanism.
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^BlackWidow [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Bot\ mailto:craftbot@yahoo.com [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ChinaClaw [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Custo [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^DISCo [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Download\ Demon [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^eCatch [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EirGrabber [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailSiphon [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailWolf [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Express\ WebPictures [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ExtractorPro [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EyeNetIE [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^FlashGet [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetRight [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetWeb! [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go!Zilla [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go-Ahead-Got-It [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GrabNet [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Grafula [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^HMView [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} HTTrack [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Stripper [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Sucker [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Indy\ Library [NC,OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^InterGET [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Internet\ Ninja [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JetCar [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JOC\ Web\ Spider [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^larbin [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^LeechFTP [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mass\ Downloader [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MIDown\ tool [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mister\ PiX [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Navroad [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NearSite [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetAnts [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetSpider [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Net\ Vampire [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetZIP [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Octopus [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Explorer [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Navigator [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^PageGrabber [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Papa\ Foto [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pavuk [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pcBrowser [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^RealDownload [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ReGet [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SiteSnagger [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SmartDownload [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperBot [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperHTTP [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Surfbot [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^tAkeOut [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Teleport\ Pro [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^VoidEYE [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Image\ Collector [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Sucker [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebAuto [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebCopier [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebFetch [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebGo\ IS [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebLeacher [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebReaper [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebSauger [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ eXtractor [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ Quester [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebStripper [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebWhacker [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebZIP [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Widow [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WWWOFFLE [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Xaldon\ WebSpider [OR]
 +
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Zeus
 +
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 +
 +
## Return 403 Forbidden error.
 +
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Line 565: Line 593:
 
[http://perishablepress.com/press/tag/htaccess/ .htaccess tag archive @ perishablepress.com]
 
[http://perishablepress.com/press/tag/htaccess/ .htaccess tag archive @ perishablepress.com]
  
[http://snipt.net/nikosdion/the-master-htaccess Proposed "master htaccess" (updated by Nicholas on November 18th 2010 to v2.3) DO read the intro by Nicholas!]
+
[http://akeeba.assembla.com/code/master-htaccess/git/nodes/htaccess.txt Proposed "master htaccess" (updated by Nicholas on April 24th 2011 to v3.3) DO read the intro by Nicholas!]
 
[[Category:Security]]
 
[[Category:Security]]
  
The original file contains a number of syntax errors, several rules that can never work, and a number of expressions that can be more efficiently coded.
+
The original file contained a number of syntax errors, several rules that cwould never work, and a number of expressions that could be more efficiently coded.
  
 
Bugs and enhancements originally discussed at: http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841
 
Bugs and enhancements originally discussed at: http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841
Line 576: Line 604:
 
The new proposed file: http://code.google.com/p/joomla-master-htaccess/source/list and at: http://akeeba.assembla.com/code/master-htaccess/git/node/logs
 
The new proposed file: http://code.google.com/p/joomla-master-htaccess/source/list and at: http://akeeba.assembla.com/code/master-htaccess/git/node/logs
  
The changes explained, line by line:  
+
The changes explained, line by line:
 
http://codereview.appspot.com/4312049/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt
 
http://codereview.appspot.com/4312049/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt
 
http://codereview.appspot.com/4290071/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt
 
http://codereview.appspot.com/4290071/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt

Revision as of 12:32, 15 July 2013

Contents

Credit for this .htaccess file goes to Ronald van den Heetkamp, Nicholas Dionysopoulos, g1smd, and others where listed

Suggested Master htaccess file

This can be discussed in this forum topic

Warning: Read the hashed areas! Incorrect settings on some servers may cause 500 page errors. The only way to figure out which rule(s) or section(s) are causing the errors is by trial and error.

This .htaccess file is not meant to be just dropped in your site. You should go through all sections and modify the file to match your site. Most notably, all instances of example.com and example\.com should be replaced with your real domain name. Some sections may cause problems with legitimate requests.

You are ultimately responsible for disabling sections or writing exception rules for legitimate requests that fail. Most notably, the advanced server protection section will cause issues with several minifiers, eXtplorer, VirtueMart and other extensions which use non-standard scripts as their entry points. You must add exceptions manually to the proper area of the file.

###############################################################################
## The Master .htaccess
##
## Version 2.5 (proposed) - May 16th, 2011
##
## ----------
## This file is designed to be the template .htaccess file to put on your new
## sites, increasing your site's security and performance. It is not meant to
## be just dropped in your site, though. You should go through all of its
## sections and modify it to match your site. Most notably, all instances of
## example.com and example\.com should be replaced with your real domain name.
##
## Some sections are too picky and may cause problems with legitimate requests.
## You are ultimately responsible for disabling them or writing exception rules
## for your requests. Most notably, the advanced server protection section will
## cause issues with several minifiers, eXtplorer, VirtueMart and other exten-
## sions which use non-standard scripts as their entry points. You must add
## exceptions for them manually.
##
## Some sections - depending on your server configuration - may cause your site
## to throw 500 Internal Server Error. The only way to figure out which one is
## causing it is trial and error.
##
## Big thank you's to Brian Teeman, Ken Crowder, Radek Suski and Fotis
## Evangelou for sharing their .htaccess rules with the world and inspiring
## the creation of this file. Special thanks to Jon Brown for sharing his
## research and helping me improve this file.
##
## Additional thank-yous to John for his remarks and g1smd for taking the
## time to optimize the speed of the file.
##
## It is usually prudent to remove the comments from the file when using it
## on a live host to minimize the parsing time.
##
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Do you want to customize this .htaccess file with a few clicks?
## Admin Tools Professional by AkeebaBackup.com does this and much more.
##
## Learn more: http://www.akeebabackup.com/software/admin-tools.html
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## Have fun, stay safe.
##
## Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
## Lead Developer, AkeebaBackup.com
##
## CHANGELOG:
## Version 2.5 (proposed) (May 16th, 2011)
## - Placeholders for custom code. Correction of ruleset ordering.
## Version 2.4 (April 18th, 2011)
## - Dozens of speed optimisations and many logic and syntax corrections.
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
## - Added .ico to the pass-through rules, for favicons to load
## Version 2.2 (October 25th, 2010)
## - Bug in the tmpl=component rule
## Version 2.1 (October 19th, 2010)
## - index.php to root redirection would kill some AJAX requests
## - Referer filtering was screwed up
## - Simplified and more thorough PHP Easter Egg code (thanks Jon!)
## - The tp/template/tmpl filter was not thorough and killed some components
## - Optimized Joomla! core SEF section
## - Bot filters and GZip optimization would never run for dynamic content
## - Content expiration optimization got more optimized
## - Added ETag rule
##
###############################################################################
 
########## Begin - RewriteEngine enabled
RewriteEngine On
########## End - RewriteEngine enabled
 
########## Begin - RewriteBase
# Uncomment following line if your webserver's URL
# is not directly related to physical file paths.
# Update Your Joomla! Directory (just / for root)
 
# RewriteBase /
########## End - RewriteBase
 
########## Begin - No directory listings
## Note: +FollowSymlinks may cause problems and you might have to remove it
IndexIgnore *
Options +FollowSymLinks All -Indexes
########## End - No directory listings
 
########## Begin - File execution order, by Komra.de
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
########## End - File execution order
 
########## Begin - ETag Optimization
## This rule will create an ETag for files based only on the modification
## timestamp and their size. This works wonders if you are using rsync'ed
## servers, where the inode number of identical files differs.
## Note: It may cause problems on your server and you may need to remove it
FileETag MTime Size
########## End - ETag Optimization
 
########## Begin - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
## By SigSiu.net and @nikosdion.
# This line also disables Akeeba Remote Control 2.5 and earlier
SetEnvIf user-agent "Indy Library" stayout=1
# WARNING: Disabling wget will also block the most common method for
# running CRON jobs. Remove if you have issues with CRON jobs.
SetEnvIf user-agent "Wget" stayout=1
# The following rules are for bandwidth-hogging download tools
SetEnvIf user-agent "libwww-perl" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Download Demon" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetRight" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetWeb!" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go!Zilla" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go-Ahead-Got-It" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GrabNet" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "TurnitinBot" stayout=1
# This line denies access to all of the above tools
deny from env=stayout
########## End - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
 
########## Begin - Automatic compression of resources
# Compress text, html, javascript, css, xml, kudos to Komra.de
# May kill access to your site for old versions of Internet Explorer
# The server needs to be compiled with mod_deflate otherwise it will send HTTP 500 Error.
# mod_deflate is not available on Apache 1.x series. Can only be used with Apache 2.x server.
# AddOutputFilterByType is now deprecated by Apache. Use mod_filter in the future.
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain text/html text/xml text/css application/xml application/xhtml+xml application/rss+xml application/javascript application/x-javascript
########## End - Automatic compression of resources
 
########## Begin - Add optional bad user agent or IP blocking code
#
# If you need to block certain user agents or IP addresses and
# other signatures, place that code here. Ensure the rules use
# the correct RewriteRule syntax and the [F] flag.
#
########## End - Add optional bad user agent or IP blocking code
 
########## Begin - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
## If you experience problems on your site block out the operations listed below
## This attempts to block the most common type of exploit `attempts` to Joomla!
#
# If the request query string contains /proc/self/environ (by SigSiu.net)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
# Block out any script trying to set a mosConfig value through the URL
# (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode or base64_decode data within the URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [OR]
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_decode\(.*\) [OR]
# Block out any script that includes a <script> tag in URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^s]*s)+cript.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
# Block out any script trying to set a PHP GLOBALS variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} GLOBALS(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2}) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to modify a _REQUEST variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2})
# Return 403 Forbidden header and show the content of the root homepage
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
#
########## End - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
 
########## Begin - File injection protection, by SigSiu.net
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
########## End - File injection protection
 
########## Begin - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
## I removed some common words, tweak to your liking
## This code uses PCRE and works only with Apache 2.x.
## This code will NOT work with Apache 1.x servers.
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ambien|blue\spill|cialis|cocaine|ejaculation|erectile)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(erections|hoodia|huronriveracres|impotence|levitra|libido)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(lipitor|phentermin|pro[sz]ac|sandyauer|tramadol|troyhamby)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ultram|unicauca|valium|viagra|vicodin|xanax|ypxaieo)\b [NC]
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
RewriteRule .* - [F]
## Note: The previous lines are a "compressed" version
## of the filters. You can add your own filters as:
## RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \bbadword\b [NC,OR]
## where "badword" is the word you want to exclude.
########## End - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection - query strings, referrer and config
# Advanced server protection, version 3.2 - May 2011
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
## Disallow PHP Easter Eggs (can be used in fingerprinting attacks to determine
## your PHP version). See http://www.0php.com/php_easter_egg.php and
## http://osvdb.org/12184 for more information
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12} [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
## SQLi first line of defense, thanks to Radek Suski (SigSiu.net) @
## http://www.sigsiu.net/presentations/fortifying_your_joomla_website.html
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain name.
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting the
## dots with \.  i.e. use www\.example\.com for www.example.com
RewriteRule ^images/stories/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico)$ - [F]
 
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
## Initial idea by Brian Teeman and Ken Crowder, see:
## http://www.slideshare.net/brianteeman/hidden-joomla-secrets
## Improved by @nikosdion to work more efficiently and handle template
## and tmpl query parameters
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)tmpl=(component|system) [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [L]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)t(p|emplate|mpl)= [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
## Disallow access to htaccess.txt, configuration.php, configuration.php-dist and php.ini
RewriteRule ^(htaccess\.txt|configuration\.php(-dist)?|php\.ini)$ - [F]
 
########## End - Advanced server protection - query strings, referrer and config
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
##
## These are sample exceptions to the Advanced Server Protection 3.1
## rule set further down this file.
##
## Allow UddeIM CAPTCHA
RewriteRule ^components/com_uddeim/captcha15\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Phil Taylor's Turbo Gears
RewriteRule ^plugins/system/GoogleGears/gears-manifest\.php$ - [L]
## Allow JoomlaWorks AllVideos
RewriteRule ^plugins/content/jw_allvideos/includes/jw_allvideos_scripts\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Admin Tools Joomla! updater to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_admintools/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Backup Professional's integrated restoration script to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_akeeba/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Kickstart
RewriteRule ^kickstart\.php$ - [L]
 
# Add more rules to single PHP files here
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
 
# Add more rules for allowing full access (except PHP files) on more directories here
 
## Uncomment to allow full access to the cache directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^cache/ - [L]
## Uncomment to allow full access to the tmp directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^tmp/ - [L]
 
# Add more full access rules here
 
########## End - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection - paths and files
# Advanced server protection, version 3.2 - May 2011
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
## Back-end protection
## This also blocks fingerprinting attacks browsing for XML and INI files
RewriteRule ^administrator/?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
 
## Explicitly allow access only to XML-RPC's xmlrpc/index.php or plain xmlrpc/ directory
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/(index\.php)?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/ - [F]
 
## Disallow front-end access for certain Joomla! system directories
RewriteRule ^includes/js/ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(cache|includes|language|libraries|logs|tmp)/ - [F]
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
## for being so lame, lazy and security unconscious.
# RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*(index\.php)?$ - [L]
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
# RewriteRule ^templates/([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
 
## Disallow access to rogue PHP files throughout the site, unless they are explicitly allowed
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} \.php$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !/index[23]?\.php$
## The next line is to explicitly allow the forum post assistant(fpa-xx)script to run
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !/fpa-[a-z]{2}\.php
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
RewriteRule ^([^/]+/)*([^/.]+\.)+php$ - [F]
 
########## End - Advanced server protection - paths and files
 
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
## If the above doesn't work on your server, try this:
## RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R,L]
########## End - Google Apps redirection
 
########## Begin - Custom redirects
#
# If you need to redirect some pages, place that code here. Ensure those
# redirects use the correct RewriteRule syntax and the [R=301,L] flags.
#
########## End - Custom redirects
 
########## Begin - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
## Note: olddomain.com is your old domain name, you want to redirect FROM,
## whereas www.example.com is the new domain name you want to redirect TO.
## Change those names to reflect your current configuration. Remember, this
## small part of the file is supposed to be placed in www.olddomain.com!
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
## Note: The above section is only required if you are changing your domain name.
########## End - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
 
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
# to work.
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
# Add more rules below this line as required
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above line throws a 500 error, change [R=301,L] to [R,L]
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
 
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## Begin - Custom internal rewrites
#
# If you need to internally rewrite some specific URL requests,
# place that code here. Ensure those internal rewrites use the
# correct RewriteRule syntax without domain name and with [L] flag.
#
########## End - Custom internal rewrites
 
########## Begin - Joomla! core SEF Section
#
RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
#
# If the requested path and file is not /index.php and the request
# has not already been internally rewritten to the index.php script
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/index\.php
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /component/|(/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|vcf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# and the requested path doesn't directly match a physical folder
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
# internally rewrite the request to the index.php script
RewriteRule .* index.php [L]
#
########## End - Joomla! core SEF Section
 
########## Begin - Optimal default expiration time
## Note: this might cause problems and you might have to comment it out by
## placing a hash in front of this section's lines
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
# Enable expiration control
ExpiresActive On
 
# Default expiration: 1 hour after request
ExpiresDefault "now plus 1 hour"
 
# CSS and JS expiration: 1 week after request
ExpiresByType text/css "now plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType application/javascript "now plus 1 week"
ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "now plus 1 week"
 
# Image files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType image/bmp "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/gif "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/jp2 "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/pipeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/png "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/tiff "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/x-icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/icon "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType text/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/ico "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType image/vnd.wap.wbmp "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/vnd.wap.wbxml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType application/smil "now plus 1 month"
 
# Audio files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType audio/basic "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/mid "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/midi "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-aiff "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-mpegurl "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-pn-realaudio "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType audio/x-wav "now plus 1 month"
 
# Movie files expiration: 1 month after request
ExpiresByType application/x-shockwave-flash "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType x-world/x-vrml "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-msvideo "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/mp4 "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/quicktime "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-la-asf "now plus 1 month"
ExpiresByType video/x-ms-asf "now plus 1 month"
</IfModule>
########## End - Optimal expiration time

If not using the suggested master htaccess file, the following suggestions will need RewriteEngine set to On, and will likely also need Options +FollowSymLinks too:

 # mod_rewrite in use
 RewriteEngine On
 Options +FollowSymLinks

Other useful settings

 ServerSignature Off
 RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(HEAD|TRACE|DELETE|TRACK) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (\\r|\\n|%0A|%0D) [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(,|;|:|<|>|”>|”<|/|\\\.\.\\).{0,9999} [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|scan) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 
 #Block mySQL injects
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (;|<|>|’|”|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|cast|set|declare|drop|update|md5|benchmark) [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.\./\.\. [OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.[a-z0-9] [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC]
 # Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 
 # Return 403 Forbidden error.
 RewriteRule .* index.php [F]

Block bad user agents

 ########## Block bad user agents
 ## The following list may include bots that no longer exist or are not a problem
 ## for your site. The list will always be incomplete and it is therefore wise to
 ## follow discussions on one of the many "security" mailing lists or on a forum
 ## such as http://www.webmasterworld.com/search_engine_spiders/
 ## It is also unwise to rely on this list as your ONLY security mechanism.
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^BlackWidow [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Bot\ mailto:craftbot@yahoo.com [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ChinaClaw [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Custo [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^DISCo [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Download\ Demon [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^eCatch [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EirGrabber [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailSiphon [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailWolf [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Express\ WebPictures [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ExtractorPro [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EyeNetIE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^FlashGet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetRight [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetWeb! [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go!Zilla [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go-Ahead-Got-It [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GrabNet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Grafula [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^HMView [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} HTTrack [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Stripper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Sucker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Indy\ Library [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^InterGET [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Internet\ Ninja [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JetCar [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JOC\ Web\ Spider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^larbin [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^LeechFTP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mass\ Downloader [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MIDown\ tool [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mister\ PiX [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Navroad [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NearSite [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetAnts [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetSpider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Net\ Vampire [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetZIP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Octopus [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Explorer [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Navigator [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^PageGrabber [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Papa\ Foto [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pavuk [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pcBrowser [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^RealDownload [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ReGet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SiteSnagger [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SmartDownload [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperBot [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperHTTP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Surfbot [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^tAkeOut [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Teleport\ Pro [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^VoidEYE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Image\ Collector [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Sucker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebAuto [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebCopier [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebFetch [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebGo\ IS [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebLeacher [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebReaper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebSauger [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ eXtractor [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ Quester [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebStripper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebWhacker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebZIP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Widow [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WWWOFFLE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Xaldon\ WebSpider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Zeus
 ## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 
 ## Return 403 Forbidden error.
 RewriteRule .* - [F]

External links

.htaccess tag archive @ perishablepress.com

Proposed "master htaccess" (updated by Nicholas on April 24th 2011 to v3.3) DO read the intro by Nicholas!

The original file contained a number of syntax errors, several rules that cwould never work, and a number of expressions that could be more efficiently coded.

Bugs and enhancements originally discussed at: http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841

Discussion also at: http://snipt.net/nikosdion/the-master-htaccess/ and http://snipt.net/g1smd/joomla-patch/

The new proposed file: http://code.google.com/p/joomla-master-htaccess/source/list and at: http://akeeba.assembla.com/code/master-htaccess/git/node/logs

The changes explained, line by line: http://codereview.appspot.com/4312049/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4290071/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4290071/diff/8001/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4370051/diff/3/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4314051/diff/1001/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4430062/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt http://codereview.appspot.com/4528051/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt