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Difference between revisions of "Htaccess examples (security)"

From Joomla! Documentation

(Proposed file for version 2.4.3 with more changes.)
(Proposed file for version 2.4.4 with more changes.)
Line 140: Line 140:
 
## The Master .htaccess
 
## The Master .htaccess
 
##
 
##
## Version 2.4 (proposed) - April 2nd, 2011
+
## Version 2.4 (proposed) - April 7th, 2011
 
##
 
##
 
## ----------
 
## ----------
Line 184: Line 184:
 
##
 
##
 
## CHANGELOG:
 
## CHANGELOG:
## Version 2.4 (proposed) (April 2nd, 2011)
+
## Version 2.4 (proposed) (April 7th, 2011)
 
## - Dozens of speed optimisations and many logic and syntax corrections.
 
## - Dozens of speed optimisations and many logic and syntax corrections.
 
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
 
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
Line 306: Line 306:
 
# This line denies access to all of the above tools
 
# This line denies access to all of the above tools
 
deny from env=stayout
 
deny from env=stayout
########## End - Common hacking tools and bandwidth higgers block
+
########## End - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
  
 
########## Begin - Automatic compression of resources
 
########## Begin - Automatic compression of resources
Line 318: Line 318:
  
 
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
 
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
+
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
 +
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
 
########## End - Google Apps redirection
 
########## End - Google Apps redirection
  
########## Begin - Redirect index.html~htm to / for root and /path/ for folders
+
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
+
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /([^/]+/)*index\.html?\ HTTP/
+
RewriteRule ^(([^/]+/)*)index\.html?$ http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
########## End - Redirect index.html~htm to / for root and /path/ for folders
+
 
+
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to / for root and /path/ for folders
+
 
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
 
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
 
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
 
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /([^/]+/)*index\.php\ HTTP/
+
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
 
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
 
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
RewriteRule ^(([^/]+/)*)index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
 
# If the above line throws a 500 error, change [R=301,L] to [R,L]
 
# If the above line throws a 500 error, change [R=301,L] to [R,L]
########## End - Redirect index.php to / for root and /path/ for folders
+
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
  
 
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
## Note: Change www.example.com to reflect your own domain name
+
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^(www\.example\.com)?$
+
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
  
 
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
 
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
 
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
 
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^(example\.com)?$
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
# RewriteRule (.*) http://example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
 +
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
  
Line 354: Line 350:
 
## small part of the file is supposed to be placed in olddomain.com!
 
## small part of the file is supposed to be placed in olddomain.com!
 
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
 
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
+
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
RewriteRule ^(([^/]+/)*)index\.(php|html?) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
+
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
+
 
## Note: The above section is only required if you are changing your domain name.
 
## Note: The above section is only required if you are changing your domain name.
 
########## End - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
 
########## End - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
Line 363: Line 358:
 
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
 
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
# This line is required for this rule to work properly
 
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
 
 
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
 
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
 
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
 
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
# \. in the left hand side of each rule.
+
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
 +
# to work.
 +
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
 +
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
 +
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
 
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
 
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
 +
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
 
# Add more rules below this line as required
 
# Add more rules below this line as required
 
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
Line 379: Line 377:
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
 
# Block out any script trying to set a mosConfig value through the URL
 
# Block out any script trying to set a mosConfig value through the URL
 +
# (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
 
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode or base64_decode data within the URL
 
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode or base64_decode data within the URL
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [OR]
 +
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
 +
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
 +
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_decode\(.*\) [OR]
 
# Block out any script that includes a <script> tag in URL
 
# Block out any script that includes a <script> tag in URL
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^s]*s)+cript.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^s]*s)+cript.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
Line 396: Line 398:
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.\//?)+ [OR]
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
Line 423: Line 425:
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
 
 
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
  
Line 441: Line 442:
 
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
  
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain.
+
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain name.
 
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
 
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
 
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting
 
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting
 
## the dots with \.  i.e. use www\.example\.com for www.example.com
 
## the dots with \.  i.e. use www\.example\.com for www.example.com
RewriteRule ^images/stories/([^.]+)\.(jpe?[g2]?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [L]
+
RewriteRule ^images/stories/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
 
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f
+
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [F]
RewriteRule \.(jpe?[g2]?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [F]
+
  
 
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
 
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
Line 472: Line 472:
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/([^.]+)\.(jpe?[g2]?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
+
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
 
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
  
Line 484: Line 484:
  
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^.]+)\.(jpe?[g2]?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
+
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*(index\.php)? - [L]
+
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
RewriteRule ^templates/([^.]+)\.php$ - [L]
+
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
 +
## for being so lame, lazy and security unconscious.
 +
# RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*(index\.php)?$ - [L]
 +
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
 +
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
 +
# RewriteRule ^templates/[^.]+\.php$ - [L]
 
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
 
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
## Changed above patterns to allow both /folder/ and /folder/index.php requests for JA Purity II
 
  
 
## Disallow rogue scripts in your site's root
 
## Disallow rogue scripts in your site's root
Line 502: Line 506:
 
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
 
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
+
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
 
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
RewriteRule .* - [F]
Line 533: Line 537:
 
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
 
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
 
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
 
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]  
+
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]
 
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
 
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
 
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f

Revision as of 01:22, 10 April 2011

Contents

Credit for part of this .htaccess file goes to Ronald van den Heetkamp

For this to work you need RewriteEngine set to On, and will likely also need Options +FollowSymLinks too:

 # mod_rewrite in use
 RewriteEngine On
 Options +FollowSymLinks

Block bad user agents

 ########## Block bad user agents
 ## The following list may include bots that no longer exist or are not a problem
 ## for your site. The list will always be incomplete and it is therefore wise to
 ## follow discussions on one of the many "security" mailing lists or on a forum
 ## such as http://www.webmasterworld.com/search_engine_spiders/
 ## It is also unwise to rely on this list as your ONLY security mechanism.
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^BlackWidow [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Bot\ mailto:craftbot@yahoo.com [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ChinaClaw [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Custo [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^DISCo [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Download\ Demon [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^eCatch [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EirGrabber [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailSiphon [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EmailWolf [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Express\ WebPictures [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ExtractorPro [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^EyeNetIE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^FlashGet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetRight [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GetWeb! [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go!Zilla [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Go-Ahead-Got-It [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^GrabNet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Grafula [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^HMView [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} HTTrack [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Stripper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Image\ Sucker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Indy\ Library [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^InterGET [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Internet\ Ninja [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JetCar [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^JOC\ Web\ Spider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^larbin [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^LeechFTP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mass\ Downloader [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^MIDown\ tool [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mister\ PiX [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Navroad [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NearSite [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetAnts [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetSpider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Net\ Vampire [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NetZIP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Octopus [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Explorer [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Offline\ Navigator [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^PageGrabber [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Papa\ Foto [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pavuk [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^pcBrowser [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^RealDownload [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^ReGet [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SiteSnagger [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SmartDownload [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperBot [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^SuperHTTP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Surfbot [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^tAkeOut [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Teleport\ Pro [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^VoidEYE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Image\ Collector [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Web\ Sucker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebAuto [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebCopier [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebFetch [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebGo\ IS [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebLeacher [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebReaper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebSauger [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ eXtractor [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Website\ Quester [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebStripper [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebWhacker [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WebZIP [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Widow [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^WWWOFFLE [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Xaldon\ WebSpider [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Zeus
 ## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 
 ## Return 403 Forbidden error.
 RewriteRule .* - [F]

Other useful settings

 ServerSignature Off
 RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^(HEAD|TRACE|DELETE|TRACK) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} (\\r|\\n|%0A|%0D) [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(,|;|:|<|>|”>|”<|/|\\\.\.\\).{0,9999} [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^$ [OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(java|curl|wget) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (winhttp|HTTrack|clshttp|archiver|loader|email|harvest|extract|grab|miner) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (libwww-perl|curl|wget|python|nikto|scan) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC,OR]
 
 #Block mySQL injects
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (;|<|>|’|”|\)|%0A|%0D|%22|%27|%3C|%3E|%00).*(/\*|union|select|insert|cast|set|declare|drop|update|md5|benchmark) [NC,OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.\./\.\. [OR]
 
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (localhost|loopback|127\.0\.0\.1) [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \.[a-z0-9] [NC,OR]
 RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|>|’|%0A|%0D|%27|%3C|%3E|%00) [NC]
 # Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
 
 # Return 403 Forbidden error.
 RewriteRule .* index.php [F]


Suggested Master htaccess file

This can be discussed in this forum topic

Warning: note the hashed areas. Incorrect settings on some servers may cause 500 page errors

###############################################################################
## The Master .htaccess
##
## Version 2.4 (proposed) - April 7th, 2011
##
## ----------
## This file is designed to be the template .htaccess file to put on your new
## sites, increasing your site's security and performance. It is not meant to
## be just dropped in your site, though. You should go through all of its
## sections and modify it to match your site. Most notably, all instances of
## example.com and example\.com should be replaced with your real domain name.
##
## Some sections are too picky and may cause problems with legitimate requests.
## You are ultimately responsible for disabling them or writing exception rules
## for your requests. Most notably, the advanced server protection section will
## cause issues with several minifiers, eXtplorer, VirtueMart and other exten-
## sions which use non-standard scripts as their entry points. You must add
## exceptions for them manually.
##
## Some sections - depending on your server configuration - may cause your site
## to throw 500 Internal Server Error. The only way to figure out which one is
## causing it is trial and error.
##
## Big thank you's to Brian Teeman, Ken Crowder, Radek Suski and Fotis
## Evangelou for sharing their .htaccess rules with the world and inspiring
## the creation of this file. Special thanks to Jon Brown for sharing his
## research and helping me improve this file.
##
## Additional thank-yous to John for his remarks and g1smd for taking the
## time to optimize the speed of the file.
##
## It is usually prudent to remove the comments from the file when using it
## on a live host to minimize the parsing time.
##
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Do you want to customize this .htaccess file with a few clicks?
## Admin Tools Professional by AkeebaBackup.com does this and much more.
##
## Learn more: http://www.akeebabackup.com/software/admin-tools.html
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## Have fun, stay safe.
##
## Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
## Lead Developer, AkeebaBackup.com
##
## CHANGELOG:
## Version 2.4 (proposed) (April 7th, 2011)
## - Dozens of speed optimisations and many logic and syntax corrections.
## Version 2.3 (November 18th, 2010)
## - Added .ico to the pass-through rules, for favicons to load
## Version 2.2 (October 25th, 2010)
## - Bug in the tmpl=component rule
## Version 2.1 (October 19th, 2010)
## - index.php to root redirection would kill some AJAX requests
## - Referer filtering was screwed up
## - Simplified and more thorough PHP Easter Egg code (thanks Jon!)
## - The tp/template/tmpl filter was not thorough and killed some components
## - Optimized Joomla! core SEF section
## - Bot filters and GZip optimization would never run for dynamic content
## - Content expiration optimization got more optimized
## - Added ETag rule
##
###############################################################################
 
########## Begin - RewriteEngine enabled
RewriteEngine On
########## End - RewriteEngine enabled
 
########## Begin - RewriteBase
# Uncomment following line if your webserver's URL
# is not directly related to physical file paths.
# Update Your Joomla! Directory (just / for root)
 
# RewriteBase /
########## End - RewriteBase
 
########## Begin - No directory listings
## Note: +FollowSymlinks may cause problems and you might have to remove it
IndexIgnore *
Options +FollowSymLinks All -Indexes
########## End - No directory listings
 
########## Begin - File execution order, by Komra.de
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
########## End - File execution order
 
########## Begin - ETag Optimization
## This rule will create an ETag for files based only on the modification
## timestamp and their size. This works wonders if you are using rsync'ed
## servers, where the inode number of identical files differs.
## Note: It may cause problems on your server and you may need to remove it
FileETag MTime Size
########## End - ETag Optimization
 
########## Begin - Optimal default expiration time
## Note: this might cause problems and you might have to comment it out by
## placing a hash in front of this section's lines
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
   # Enable expiration control
   ExpiresActive On
 
   # Default expiration: 1 hour after request
   ExpiresDefault "now plus 1 hour"
 
   # CSS and JS expiration: 1 week after request
   ExpiresByType text/css "now plus 1 week"
   ExpiresByType application/javascript "now plus 1 week"
   ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "now plus 1 week"
 
   # Image files expiration: 1 month after request
   ExpiresByType image/bmp "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/gif "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/jpeg "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/jp2 "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/pipeg "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/png "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/tiff "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/vnd.microsoft.icon "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/x-icon "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/ico "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/icon "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType text/ico "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType application/ico "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType image/vnd.wap.wbmp "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType application/vnd.wap.wbxml "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType application/smil "now plus 1 month"
 
   # Audio files expiration: 1 month after request
   ExpiresByType audio/basic "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/mid "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/midi "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/x-aiff "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/x-mpegurl "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/x-pn-realaudio "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType audio/x-wav "now plus 1 month"
 
   # Movie files expiration: 1 month after request
   ExpiresByType application/x-shockwave-flash "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType x-world/x-vrml "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/x-msvideo "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/mpeg "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/mp4 "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/quicktime "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/x-la-asf "now plus 1 month"
   ExpiresByType video/x-ms-asf "now plus 1 month"
</IfModule>
########## End - Optimal expiration time
 
########## Begin - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
## By SigSiu.net and @nikosdion.
# This line also disables Akeeba Remote Control 2.5 and earlier
SetEnvIf user-agent "Indy Library" stayout=1
# WARNING: Disabling wget will also block the most common method for
# running CRON jobs. Remove if you have issues with CRON jobs.
SetEnvIf user-agent "Wget" stayout=1
# The following rules are for bandwidth-hogging download tools
SetEnvIf user-agent "libwww-perl" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Download Demon" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetRight" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GetWeb!" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go!Zilla" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "Go-Ahead-Got-It" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "GrabNet" stayout=1
SetEnvIf user-agent "TurnitinBot" stayout=1
# This line denies access to all of the above tools
deny from env=stayout
########## End - Common hacking tools and bandwidth hoggers block
 
########## Begin - Automatic compression of resources
# Compress text, html, javascript, css, xml, kudos to Komra.de
# May kill access to your site for old versions of Internet Explorer
# The server needs to be compiled with mod_deflate otherwise it will send HTTP 500 Error.
# mod_deflate is not available on Apache 1.x series. Can only be used with Apache 2.x server.
# AddOutputFilterByType is now deprecated by Apache. Use mod_filter in the future.
AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/plain text/html text/xml text/css application/xml application/xhtml+xml application/rss+xml application/javascript application/x-javascript
########## End - Automatic compression of resources
 
########## Begin - Google Apps redirection, by Komra.de
## Uncomment the following line to enable:
# RewriteRule ^mail http://mail.google.com/a/example.com [R=301,L]
########## End - Google Apps redirection
 
########## Begin - Redirect index.php to /
## Note: Change example.com to reflect your own domain name
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} !^POST
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /index\.php\ HTTP/
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT}>s ^(443>(s)|[0-9]+>s)$
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ http%2://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
# If the above line throws a 500 error, change [R=301,L] to [R,L]
########## End - Redirect index.php to /
 
########## Begin - Redirect non-www to www
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\. [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.%{HTTP_HOST}/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## Begin - Redirect www to non-www
## WARNING: Comment out the non-www to www rule if you choose to use this
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www\.(.+)$ [NC]
# RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]
## If the above throws an HTTP 500 error, swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
########## End - Redirect non-www to www
 
########## Begin - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
## Note: olddomain.com is your old domain name, you want to redirect FROM,
## whereas www.example.com is the new domain name you want to redirect TO.
## Change those names to reflect your current configuration. Remember, this
## small part of the file is supposed to be placed in olddomain.com!
## Note: Replace [R=301,L] with [R,L] if you get error 500.
## Uncomment the following lines to enable:
# RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^(www\.)?olddomain\.com [NC]
# RewriteRule (.*) http://www.example.com/$1 [R=301,L]
## Note: The above section is only required if you are changing your domain name.
########## End - Redirect (www.)olddomain.com to www.example.com
 
########## Begin - Force HTTPS for certain pages
# Force the page foobar.html to run in HTTPS mode, no matter what Joomla! says.
# This is a sample redirection for foobar.html. Do note that you have to change
# www.example.com to reflect your own domain. Remember to escape the dots using
# \. in the left hand side of each rule. You need BOTH LINES PER URL for the rule
# to work.
RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^443$
## Alternatively, comment the above line and uncomment the following line:
# RewriteCond %{HTTPS} ^off$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^foobar\.html$ https://www.example.com/foobar.html [R=301,L]
## NOTE: If you get an HTTP 500 error, please swap [R=301,L] with [R,L]
# Add more rules below this line as required
########## End - Force HTTPS for certain pages
 
########## Begin - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
## If you experience problems on your site block out the operations listed below
## This attempts to block the most common type of exploit `attempts` to Joomla!
#
# If the request query string contains /proc/self/environ (by SigSiu.net)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} proc/self/environ [OR]
# Block out any script trying to set a mosConfig value through the URL
# (these attacks wouldn't work w/out Joomla! 1.5's Legacy Mode plugin)
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} mosConfig_[a-zA-Z_]{1,21}(=|\%3D) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to base64_encode or base64_decode data within the URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_(en|de)code[^(]*\([^)]*\) [OR]
## IMPORTANT: If the above line throws an HTTP 500 error, replace it with these 2 lines:
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_encode\(.*\) [OR]
# RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} base64_decode\(.*\) [OR]
# Block out any script that includes a <script> tag in URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (<|%3C)([^s]*s)+cript.*(>|%3E) [NC,OR]
# Block out any script trying to set a PHP GLOBALS variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} GLOBALS(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2}) [OR]
# Block out any script trying to modify a _REQUEST variable via URL
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} _REQUEST(=|\[|\%[0-9A-Z]{0,2})
# Return 403 Forbidden header and show the content of the root homepage
RewriteRule .* index.php [F]
#
########## End - Rewrite rules to block out some common exploits
 
########## Begin - File injection protection, by SigSiu.net
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} GET
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=http:// [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=(\.\.//?)+ [OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} [a-zA-Z0-9_]=/([a-z0-9_.]//?)+ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
########## End - File injection protection
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
##
## These are sample exceptions to the Advanced Server Protection 3.0
## rule set further down this file.
##
## Allow UddeIM CAPTCHA
RewriteRule ^components/com_uddeim/captcha15\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Phil Taylor's Turbo Gears
RewriteRule ^plugins/system/GoogleGears/gears-manifest\.php$ - [L]
## Allow JoomlaWorks AllVideos
RewriteRule ^plugins/content/jw_allvideos/includes/jw_allvideos_scripts\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Admin Tools Joomla! updater to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_admintools/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Backup Professional's integrated restoration script to run
RewriteRule ^administrator/components/com_akeeba/restore\.php$ - [L]
## Allow Akeeba Kickstart
RewriteRule ^kickstart\.php$ - [L]
 
# Add more rules to single PHP files here
 
## Allow Agora attachments, but not PHP files in that directory!
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !(\.php)$
RewriteRule ^components/com_agora/img/members/ - [L]
 
# Add more rules for allowing full access (except PHP files) on more directories here
 
## Uncomment to allow full access to the cache directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^cache/ - [L]
## Uncomment to allow full access to the tmp directory (strongly not recommended!)
#RewriteRule ^tmp/ - [L]
 
# Add more full access rules here
 
########## End - Advanced server protection rules exceptions ####
 
########## Begin - Advanced server protection
# Advanced server protection, version 2.0 - August 2010
# by Nicholas K. Dionysopoulos
 
## Referrer filtering for common media files. Replace with your own domain name.
## This blocks most common fingerprinting attacks ;)
## Note: Change www\.example\.com with your own domain name, substituting
## the dots with \.  i.e. use www\.example\.com for www.example.com
RewriteRule ^images/stories/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} .
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^https?://(www\.)?example\.com [NC]
RewriteRule \.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|ico|html?)$ - [F]
 
## Disallow visual fingerprinting of Joomla! sites (module position dump)
## Initial idea by Brian Teeman and Ken Crowder, see:
## http://www.slideshare.net/brianteeman/hidden-joomla-secrets
## Improved by @nikosdion to work more efficiently and handle template
## and tmpl query parameters
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)tmpl=(component|system) [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [L]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} (^|&)t(p|emplate|mpl)= [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
## Disallow PHP Easter Eggs (can be used in fingerprinting attacks to determine
## your PHP version). See http://www.0php.com/php_easter_egg.php and
## http://osvdb.org/12184 for more information
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \=PHP[0-9a-f]{8}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{4}-[0-9a-f]{12} [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
## Back-end protection
## This also blocks fingerprinting attacks browsing for XML and INI files
RewriteRule ^administrator/?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index\.(php|html?)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/index[23]\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/(components|modules|templates|images|plugins)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^administrator/ - [F]
 
## Explicitly allow access only to XML-RPC's xmlrpc/index.php or plain xmlrpc/ directory
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/(index\.php)?$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^xmlrpc/ - [F]
 
## Disallow front-end access for certain Joomla! system directories
RewriteRule ^includes/js/ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(cache|includes|language|libraries|logs|tmp)/ - [F]
 
## Allow limited access for certain Joomla! system directories with client-accessible content
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/[^.]+\.(jp(e?g|2)?|png|gif|bmp|css|js|swf|html?|mp(eg?|[34])|avi|wav|og[gv]|xlsx?|docx?|pptx?|zip|rar|pdf|xps|txt|7z|svg|od[tsp]|flv|mov)$ - [L]
## Uncomment this line if you have extensions which require direct access to their own
## custom index.php files. Note that this is UNSAFE and the developer should be ashamed
## for being so lame, lazy and security unconscious.
# RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/([^/]+/)*(index\.php)?$ - [L]
## Uncomment the following line if your template requires direct access to PHP files
## inside its directory, e.g. GZip compressed copies of its CSS files
# RewriteRule ^templates/[^.]+\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^(components|modules|plugins|templates)/ - [F]
 
## Disallow rogue scripts in your site's root
# Exception: Allow Joomla!'s index.php and index2.php files
RewriteRule ^index2?\.php$ - [L]
RewriteRule ^[^.]+\.php$ - [F]
 
## Disallow access to htaccess.txt, configuration.php, configuration.php-dist and php.ini
RewriteRule ^(htaccess\.txt|configuration\.php(-dist)?|php\.ini)$ - [F]
 
## SQLi first line of defense, thanks to Radek Suski (SigSiu.net) @
## http://www.sigsiu.net/presentations/fortifying_your_joomla_website.html
## May cause problems on legitimate requests
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} concat[^\(]*\( [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^s]*s)+elect [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} union([^a]*a)+ll([^s]*s)+elect [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F]
 
########## End - Advanced server protection
 
########## Begin - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
## I removed some common words, tweak to your liking
## This code uses PCRE and works only with Apache 2.x.
## This code will NOT work with Apache 1.x servers.
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ambien|blue\spill|cialis|cocaine|ejaculation|erectile)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(erections|hoodia|huronriveracres|impotence|levitra|libido)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(lipitor|phentermin|pro[sz]ac|sandyauer|tramadol|troyhamby)\b [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \b(ultram|unicauca|valium|viagra|vicodin|xanax|ypxaieo)\b [NC]
## Note: The final RewriteCond must NOT use the [OR] flag.
RewriteRule .* - [F]
## Note: The previous lines are a "compressed" version
## of the filters. You can add your own filters as:
## RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} \bbadword\b [NC,OR]
## where "badword" is the word you want to exclude.
########## End - Basic antispam Filter, by SigSiu.net
 
########## Begin - Joomla! core SEF Section
#
RewriteRule .* - [E=HTTP_AUTHORIZATION:%{HTTP:Authorization}]
#
# If the requested path and file is not /index.php and the request
# has not already been internally rewritten to the index.php script
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/index\.php
# and the request is for the site root, or for an extensionless URL,
# or the requested URL ends with one of the listed extensions
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} (/[^.]*|\.(php|html?|feed|pdf|raw|ini|zip|json|file))$ [NC]
# and the requested path and file doesn't directly match a physical file
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
# and the requested path doesn't directly match a physical folder
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
# internally rewrite the request to the index.php script
RewriteRule .* index.php [L]
#
########## End - Joomla! core SEF Section

External links

.htaccess tag archive @ perishablepress.com

Proposed "master htaccess" (updated by Nicholas on November 18th 2010 to v2.3) DO read the intro by Nichols!

The original file contains a number of syntax errors, several rules that can never work, and a number of expressions that can be more efficiently coded.

Bugs and enhancements originally discussed at: http://forum.joomla.org/viewtopic.php?f=432&t=549841

Discussion also at: http://snipt.net/nikosdion/the-master-htaccess/

The new proposed file: http://snipt.net/g1smd/joomla-master-htaccess-file-proposed-v24-2011-03-24/ or at http://code.google.com/p/joomla-master-htaccess/source/list

The changes explained, line by line: http://codereview.appspot.com/4312049/diff/1/joomla-master-htaccess.txt