This article provides detailed instructions for setting up your workstation for Joomla! development with Apache, PHP, xdebug, Git. Please refer to the following links for other development tools and environments: Setting up your workstation for joomla development
The article more specifically let's you contribute to the official Joomla! Github code repository.
Now we are going to create a new PHP project that will contain all of the source code files for Joomla!. We can import the source code and create our PHP project at the same time.
To do so, please see Working with git and github/My first pull request
For testing and tracking changes, please refer to Git for Testers and Trackers
For Eclipse setup information related to Joomla! extension development, see Setting up your workstation for extension development.