J3.x

開發 MVC 元件/基本的後台

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< J3.x:Developing an MVC Component
This page is a translated version of the page J3.x:Developing an MVC Component/Basic backend and the translation is 52% complete.

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Joomla! 
3.x
教學
開發一個 Model-View-Controller 元件


這是一系列的多篇文章,旨在介紹如何開發一個 Joomla! VersionJoomla 3.x Model-View-Controller 元件

讓我們從簡介開始,您可以使用底下的導覽按鈕來瀏覽文章,或是右側的方塊中的連結(列出所有的文章)。



介紹

有兩隻影片和此步驟教學有關: MVC 結構以及分頁效果 (Pagination), 以及 HTML 元素以及 Javascript 程式碼.

基本的後台

Designing the backend interface leads us to create at least a Model-View-Controller triptych. We have to modify the administrator entry point of our component, the admin/helloworld.php file.

admin/helloworld.php

<?php
/**
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 *
 * @copyright   Copyright (C) 2005 - 2018 Open Source Matters, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * @license     GNU General Public License version 2 or later; see LICENSE.txt
 */

// No direct access to this file
defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted access');

// Get an instance of the controller prefixed by HelloWorld
$controller = JControllerLegacy::getInstance('HelloWorld');

// Perform the Request task
$controller->execute(JFactory::getApplication()->input->get('task'));

// Redirect if set by the controller
$controller->redirect();

Create the general controller

The entry point now gets an instance of a HelloWorld prefixed controller. Let's create a basic controller for the administrator part:

admin/controller.php

<?php
/**
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 *
 * @copyright   Copyright (C) 2005 - 2018 Open Source Matters, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * @license     GNU General Public License version 2 or later; see LICENSE.txt
 */

// No direct access to this file
defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted access');

/**
 * General Controller of HelloWorld component
 *
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 * @since       0.0.7
 */
class HelloWorldController extends JControllerLegacy
{
	/**
	 * The default view for the display method.
	 *
	 * @var string
	 * @since 12.2
	 */
	protected $default_view = 'helloworlds';
}

預設 controller 將會顯示 'HelloWorlds' 的 view。

建立 view

With your favourite file manager and editor, create a file admin/views/helloworlds/view.html.php containing:

admin/views/helloworlds/view.html.php

<?php
/**
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 *
 * @copyright   Copyright (C) 2005 - 2018 Open Source Matters, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * @license     GNU General Public License version 2 or later; see LICENSE.txt
 */

// No direct access to this file
defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted access');

/**
 * HelloWorlds View
 *
 * @since  0.0.1
 */
class HelloWorldViewHelloWorlds extends JViewLegacy
{
	/**
	 * Display the Hello World view
	 *
	 * @param   string  $tpl  The name of the template file to parse; automatically searches through the template paths.
	 *
	 * @return  void
	 */
	function display($tpl = null)
	{
		// Get data from the model
		$this->items		= $this->get('Items');
		$this->pagination	= $this->get('Pagination');

		// Check for errors.
		if (count($errors = $this->get('Errors')))
		{
			JError::raiseError(500, implode('<br />', $errors));

			return false;
		}

		// Display the template
		parent::display($tpl);
	}
}

In Joomla, views display data using layout. With your favourite file manager and editor, put a file admin/views/helloworlds/tmpl/default.php containing

admin/views/helloworlds/tmpl/default.php

<?php
/**
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 *
 * @copyright   Copyright (C) 2005 - 2018 Open Source Matters, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * @license     GNU General Public License version 2 or later; see LICENSE.txt
 */

// No direct access to this file
defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted Access');
?>
<form action="index.php?option=com_helloworld&view=helloworlds" method="post" id="adminForm" name="adminForm">
	<table class="table table-striped table-hover">
		<thead>
		<tr>
			<th width="1%"><?php echo JText::_('COM_HELLOWORLD_NUM'); ?></th>
			<th width="2%">
				<?php echo JHtml::_('grid.checkall'); ?>
			</th>
			<th width="90%">
				<?php echo JText::_('COM_HELLOWORLD_HELLOWORLDS_NAME') ;?>
			</th>
			<th width="5%">
				<?php echo JText::_('COM_HELLOWORLD_PUBLISHED'); ?>
			</th>
			<th width="2%">
				<?php echo JText::_('COM_HELLOWORLD_ID'); ?>
			</th>
		</tr>
		</thead>
		<tfoot>
			<tr>
				<td colspan="5">
					<?php echo $this->pagination->getListFooter(); ?>
				</td>
			</tr>
		</tfoot>
		<tbody>
			<?php if (!empty($this->items)) : ?>
				<?php foreach ($this->items as $i => $row) : ?>

					<tr>
						<td>
							<?php echo $this->pagination->getRowOffset($i); ?>
						</td>
						<td>
							<?php echo JHtml::_('grid.id', $i, $row->id); ?>
						</td>
						<td>
							<?php echo $row->greeting; ?>
						</td>
						<td align="center">
							<?php echo JHtml::_('jgrid.published', $row->published, $i, 'helloworlds.', true, 'cb'); ?>
						</td>
						<td align="center">
							<?php echo $row->id; ?>
						</td>
					</tr>
				<?php endforeach; ?>
			<?php endif; ?>
		</tbody>
	</table>
</form>

COM_HELLOWORLD_HELLOWORLDS_NAME, COM_HELLOWORLD_ID and the others are placeholders which will later be replaced with language-specific text. The JText::_ method translates a string into the current language.

checkAll is a javascript function defined in the Joomla core able to check all items.

JHtml::_ is a helper function able to display several HTML output. In this case, it will display a checkbox for the item.

JPagination is a Joomla class able to manage and display pagination object.

建立 model

The HelloWorlds view asks the model for data. In Joomla, there is a class able to manage a list of data: JModelList. Class JModelList and inherited classes need only one method:

  • getListQuery which constructs an SQL query

以及兩個 states:

  • list.start for determining the list offset
  • list.limit for determining the list length

The getItems and getPagination methods are defined in JModelList class. They don't need to be defined in the HelloWorldModelHelloWorlds class.

admin/models/helloworlds.php

<?php
/**
 * @package     Joomla.Administrator
 * @subpackage  com_helloworld
 *
 * @copyright   Copyright (C) 2005 - 2018 Open Source Matters, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * @license     GNU General Public License version 2 or later; see LICENSE.txt
 */
// No direct access to this file
defined('_JEXEC') or die('Restricted access');

/**
 * HelloWorldList Model
 *
 * @since  0.0.1
 */
class HelloWorldModelHelloWorlds extends JModelList
{
	/**
	 * Method to build an SQL query to load the list data.
	 *
	 * @return      string  An SQL query
	 */
	protected function getListQuery()
	{
		// Initialize variables.
		$db    = JFactory::getDbo();
		$query = $db->getQuery(true);

		// Create the base select statement.
		$query->select('*')
                ->from($db->quoteName('#__helloworld'));

		return $query;
	}
}

The _populateState method is, by default, automatically called when a state is read by the getState method.

包裝元件

您的程式碼路徑中的內容

Create a compressed file of this directory or directly download the archive and install it using the extension manager of Joomla. You can add a menu item of this component using the menu manager in the backend.

helloworld.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<extension type="component" version="3.0" method="upgrade">

	<name>Hello World!</name>
	<!-- The following elements are optional and free of formatting constraints -->
	<creationDate>January 2018</creationDate>
	<author>John Doe</author>
	<authorEmail>john.doe@example.org</authorEmail>
	<authorUrl>http://www.example.org</authorUrl>
	<copyright>Copyright Info</copyright>
	<license>License Info</license>
	<!--  The version string is recorded in the components table -->
	<version>0.0.7</version>
	<!-- The description is optional and defaults to the name -->
	<description>Description of the Hello World component ...</description>

	<install> <!-- Runs on install -->
		<sql>
			<file driver="mysql" charset="utf8">sql/install.mysql.utf8.sql</file>
		</sql>
	</install>
	<uninstall> <!-- Runs on uninstall -->
		<sql>
			<file driver="mysql" charset="utf8">sql/uninstall.mysql.utf8.sql</file>
		</sql>
	</uninstall>
	<update> <!-- Runs on update; New since J2.5 -->
		<schemas>
			<schemapath type="mysql">sql/updates/mysql</schemapath>
		</schemas>
	</update>

	<!-- Site Main File Copy Section -->
	<!-- Note the folder attribute: This attribute describes the folder
		to copy FROM in the package to install therefore files copied
		in this section are copied from /site/ in the package -->
	<files folder="site">
		<filename>index.html</filename>
		<filename>helloworld.php</filename>
		<filename>controller.php</filename>
		<folder>views</folder>
		<folder>models</folder>
	</files>

	<administration>
		<!-- Administration Menu Section -->
		<menu link='index.php?option=com_helloworld'>Hello World!</menu>
		<!-- Administration Main File Copy Section -->
		<!-- Note the folder attribute: This attribute describes the folder
			to copy FROM in the package to install therefore files copied
			in this section are copied from /admin/ in the package -->
		<files folder="admin">
			<!-- Admin Main File Copy Section -->
			<filename>index.html</filename>
			<filename>helloworld.php</filename>
			<filename>controller.php</filename>
			<!-- SQL files section -->
			<folder>sql</folder>
			<!-- tables files section -->
			<folder>tables</folder>
			<!-- models files section -->
			<folder>models</folder>
			<!-- views files section -->
			<folder>views</folder>
		</files>
	</administration>

</extension>

Now you can see in your component hello-world an array with two colums, two rows and checkboxes. You can click the checkboxes in order to select the different options you want.

Info non-talk.png
General Information

請建立一個PR(pull request ),或是到此 https://github.com/joomla/Joomla-3.2-Hello-World-Component 建立一個issue,如果本頁有什麼程式碼方面的差異或是編輯的需要。

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