Nginx

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nginx is a lightweight Web server that powers about 13% of Web servers across all domains[1]. Unless you have specific requirements that demand a heavy Web server like Apache, you are much better off using nginx.

以下介紹如何在 nginx 和 PHP FastCGI 中使用 Joomla!

安裝 nginx

對於Ubuntu 的使用者,執行 aptitude install nginx。對於其他的Linux版本,請使用各自的套件管理器(Package Manager),或者請看 http://wiki.nginx.org/Install。

安裝 PHP FastCGI

對於 Ubuntu 的使用者,請看這篇非常詳細的如何 設定 PHP 以及 FastCGI 給 nginx 的教學。

對於 Gentoo 的使用者,PHP 需要執行 FastCGI 的服務 (fpm),所以 nginx 的服務將會分開執行 PHP:

# echo "dev-lang/php gd gd2 curl simplexml tokenizer dom tidy sqlite xml fpm cgi" >> /etc/portage/package.use
# emerge php

The default settings of php-fpm are good for most servers. For special configurations, visit the PHP FPM site.

Configure Nginx

nginx configuration files reside in:

  • /etc/nginx/sites-available/ on Ubuntu (for sites running on that nginx instance)
  • /etc/nginx/nginx.conf on Gentoo and Raspbian(= Debian optimized for Raspberry Pi)

Here is an sample nginx configuration file, joomla.conf, that you can reuse over all your nginx enabled-sites.

server {
        listen 80;
        server_name YOUR_DOMAIN;
        server_name_in_redirect off;

        access_log /var/log/nginx/localhost.access_log;
        error_log /var/log/nginx/localhost.error_log info;

        root PATH_ON_SERVER;
        index index.php index.html index.htm default.html default.htm;
        # Support Clean (aka Search Engine Friendly) URLs
        location / {
                try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?$args;
        }

        # add global x-content-type-options header
        add_header X-Content-Type-Options nosniff;

        # deny running scripts inside writable directories
        location ~* /(images|cache|media|logs|tmp)/.*\.(php|pl|py|jsp|asp|sh|cgi)$ {
                return 403;
                error_page 403 /403_error.html;
        }

        location ~ \.php$ {
            fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include /etc/nginx/fastcgi.conf;
        }

        # caching of files 
        location ~* \.(ico|pdf|flv)$ {
                expires 1y;
        }

        location ~* \.(js|css|png|jpg|jpeg|gif|swf|xml|txt)$ {
                expires 14d;
        }

}

Pay attention to a few things:

  1. The parameter fastcgi_pass is set to 127.0.0.1:9000, corresponding to the port that fpm is configured to listen to. This means you can run the PHP processes on separate servers. On Gentoo, you can find this configuration in /etc/php/fpm-php5.3/php-fpm.conf/
  2. Don't forget to replace YOUR_DOMAIN & PATH_ON_SERVER above depending on your domain and the path of Joomla on your server.

GZip support

If you need GZip compression support, add the following section to the http section of the main nginx configuration file:

        gzip on;
        gzip_http_version 1.1;
        gzip_comp_level 6;
        gzip_min_length 1100;
        gzip_buffers 4 8k;
        gzip_types text/plain application/xhtml+xml text/css application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript application/javascript application/x-javascript
        gzip_proxied     any;
        gzip_disable     "MSIE [1-6]\.";

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