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Difference between revisions of "Adding JavaScript and CSS to the page"

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(Added code example for adding dynamically generated javascript functions to the HEAD of a page.)
(Inserting from within a PHP file)
(35 intermediate revisions by 10 users not shown)
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{{stub}}
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{{version/tutor|2.5,3.x}}{{review||Code is no longer 2.5/3.x applicable}}
  
To have a well-formed XHTML document, you must put all references to Javascript and CSS files within the <head> portion. Since Joomla! generates all of the HTML that makes up a page before output, it is possible to add these references to the <head> tag from your extension. To accomplish this, you first need to get a reference to the current document object:
+
== Inserting from a File ==
 +
To have a well-formed XHTML document, you must put all references to Javascript and CSS files within the <code><head></code> portion. Since Joomla! generates all the HTML that makes up a page before output, it is possible to add these references within the <head> tags from your extension. The simplest way to do this is to make use of the functionality built in to Joomla!. In Joomla 2.5 you can still use the following, but it's marked as deprecated and changed in 3.x:
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
// Add a reference to a Javascript file
 +
// The default path is 'media/system/js/'
 +
JHtml::script($filename, $path, $mootools);
  
<pre>
+
// Add a reference to a CSS file
$document =& JFactory::getDocument();
+
// The default path is 'media/system/css/'
</pre>
+
JHtml::stylesheet($filename, $path);
 +
</source>
  
To add a Javascript file, use this code:
+
API has changed in 3.x, so the second parameter cannot be a string. If you really need to use these methods, you must include the absolute link to your files:
<pre>
+
$document->addScript($url);
+
</pre>
+
  
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
<?php
 +
JHtml::script(Juri::base() . 'templates/custom/js/sample.js', $mootools);
 +
JHtml::stylesheet(Juri::base() . 'templates/custom/css/style.js');
 +
?>
 +
</source>
 +
 +
Using these functions, Joomla! will take care of any additional requirements. For example, if your Javascript requires Mootools, setting <code>$mootools = true</code> will automatically ensure that Mootools is loaded, if it has not already been done.
 +
 +
However, the above functions will not be flexible enough for every scenario, and so it is possible to tap into the underlying functionality instead. Of course, you will also need to manually code some of the steps that would be done automatically using the functions above.
 +
 +
First, get a reference to the current document object:
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
 +
</source>
 
For a stylesheet, use this code:
 
For a stylesheet, use this code:
<pre>
+
<source lang="php">
 
$document->addStyleSheet($url);
 
$document->addStyleSheet($url);
</pre>
+
</source>
 +
 
 +
To add a Javascript file, use this code:
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
$document->addScript($url);
 +
</source>
 +
Note this will **NOT** include Mootools or jQuery. If your script requires Mootools or jQuery see [[Javascript_Frameworks]] for full details on how to include them (note jQuery can only be included natively on Joomla 3.0+).
 +
 
 +
== Inserting from within a PHP file ==
 +
 
 +
If your Javascript or CSS are generated using PHP, you can add the script or stylesheet directly into the head of your document:
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
 +
 
 +
// Add Javascript
 +
$document->addScriptDeclaration('
 +
    window.event("domready", function() {
 +
        alert("An inline JavaScript Declaration");
 +
    });
 +
');
 +
 
 +
// Add styles
 +
$style = 'body {'
 +
        . 'background: #00ff00;'
 +
        . 'color: rgb(0,0,255);'
 +
        . '}';
 +
$document->addStyleDeclaration($style);
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
== Javascript Examples ==
 +
 
 +
For example, the following code is used to define a custom tool tip that takes advantage of mootools.
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
function getToolTipJS($toolTipVarName, $toolTipClassName){
 +
    $javascript = 'window.addEvent(\"domready\", function(){' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t"  .'var $toolTipVarName = new Tips($$("' . $toolTipVarName .'"), {' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'className: "' .$toolTipClassName .'",' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'initialize: function(){' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx = new Fx.Style(this.toolTip, "opacity", {duration: 500, wait: false}).set(0);' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'},' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'onShow: function(toolTip){' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx.start(1);' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'},' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'onHide: function(toolTip) {' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx.start(0);' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t\t"  .'}' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= "\t"  .'});' ."\n";
 +
    $javascript .= '});' ."\n\n";
 +
    return $javascript;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
 +
$document->addStyleSheet("/joomla/components/com_mycustomcomponent/css/mytooltip.css",'text/css',"screen");
 +
$document->addScriptDeclaration(getToolTipJS("mytool","MyToolTip"));
 +
</source>
 +
Note that in order for this Javascript to be functionally useful, it would be necessary to include the appropriate class name in the HTML, as well as providing the <code>mytooltip.css</code> file. Both are outside the scope of this article.
 +
 
 +
== CSS Examples ==
 +
 
 +
This is also useful if your inserting a parameter/form field of CSS into your code. For example in a module, you might want a user to choose to call the colour of the border. After calling the parameter/form field and assigning it a variable $bordercolor in mod_example.php. Then in tmpl/default.php you can include the following
 +
<source lang="php">
 +
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
 +
$document->addStyleSheet(JURI::base() . 'modules/mod_example/css/mod_example.css');
 +
$style = '#example {
 +
border-color:#' . $bordercolor . ';
 +
}';
 +
$document->addStyleDeclaration( $style );
 +
</source>
 +
Here mod_example.css contains the CSS file of any non-parameter based styles. Then the bordercolor parameter/form field is added in separately
  
If you want to add custom HTML to the head tag, use this code:
+
==Add Custom Tag==
<pre>
+
$document->addCustomTag($html);
+
</pre>
+
  
Using the $document->addCustomTag() API may be used to insert any type of HTML into the HEAD tag.  For instance you may have some javascript code that must be generated dynamically using PHP code (and therefor is not in a .js file), and then placed into the HEAD.  The below shows some sample code to accomplish just that.  The code is used to define a custom tool tip that takes advantage of mootools.
+
There will be some occasions where even these functions are not flexible enough, as they are limited to writing the contents of <code><script /></code> or <code><style /></code> tags, and cannot add anything outside those tags. One example would be the inclusion of a stylesheet link within conditional comments, so that it is picked up only by Internet Explorer 6 and earlier. To do this, use <code>$document->addCustomTag</code>:
<pre>
+
<source lang="php">
    function getToolTipJS($toolTipVarName, $toolTipClassName){
+
$stylelink = '<!--[if lte IE 6]>' ."\n";
        $javascript = "<script type=\"text/javascript\">\n\n";
+
$stylelink .= '<link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/IEonly.css" />' ."\n";
        $javascript .= "window.addEvent(\"domready\", function(){\n";
+
$stylelink .= '<![endif]-->' ."\n";
        $javascript .= "    var $toolTipVarName = new Tips(\$\$('." . $toolTipVarName . "'), {\n";
+
        $javascript .= "       className: '" . $toolTipClassName . "',\n";
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        $javascript .= "        initialize:function(){\n";
+
        $javascript .= "            this.fx = new Fx.Style(this.toolTip, 'opacity', {duration: 500, wait: false}).set(0);\n";
+
        $javascript .= "       },\n";
+
        $javascript .= "       onShow: function(toolTip) {\n";
+
        $javascript .= "            this.fx.start(1);\n";
+
        $javascript .= "       },\n";
+
        $javascript .= "        onHide: function(toolTip) {\n";
+
        $javascript .= "           this.fx.start(0);\n";
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        $javascript .= "        }\n";
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        $javascript .= "    });\n";
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        $javascript .= "});\n\n";
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        $javascript .= "</script>\n\n";
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        return $javascript;
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    }
+
  
    $document->addStyleSheet("/joomla/components/com_mycustomcomponent/css/mytooltip.css",'text/css',"screen");
+
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
    $document->addCustomTag(getToolTipJS("mytool","MyToolTip"));
+
$document->addCustomTag($stylelink);
   
+
</source>
   
+
</pre>
+
To make the above code usable on any page, you would need a corresponding style sheet added to the HEAD that contains information for the new Tool Tip class.  The contents of mytooltip.css are beyond the scope of this document.  This example is not even entirely useful however the methods used here can be used to insert any type of javascript into the HEAD of a document.  I use it most when I have forms with <SELECT> elements that need to be filled in with information from a database.  Then when the user selects an <OPTION> in the <SELECT> element some dynamically generated javascript function will be called to perform different actions based on what was selected.  I am sure you will find many other applications for this technique.  One last thing to note is the use of the window.addEvent() function in the javascript created.  For cross-browser compatibility it would be wiser to use event listeners.  Information on event listeners can be found in almost any javascript/DOM documentation.
+
  
[[Category:Development]]
+
<noinclude>[[Category:Development]] [[Category:Tutorials]][[Category:Component Development]][[Category:Module Development]]
 +
[[Category:JavaScript]]
 +
[[Category:CSS]]
 +
</noinclude>

Revision as of 01:57, 12 August 2013

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Reason: Code is no longer 2.5/3.x applicable


Contents

Inserting from a File

To have a well-formed XHTML document, you must put all references to Javascript and CSS files within the <head> portion. Since Joomla! generates all the HTML that makes up a page before output, it is possible to add these references within the <head> tags from your extension. The simplest way to do this is to make use of the functionality built in to Joomla!. In Joomla 2.5 you can still use the following, but it's marked as deprecated and changed in 3.x:

// Add a reference to a Javascript file
// The default path is 'media/system/js/'
JHtml::script($filename, $path, $mootools);
 
// Add a reference to a CSS file
// The default path is 'media/system/css/'
JHtml::stylesheet($filename, $path);

API has changed in 3.x, so the second parameter cannot be a string. If you really need to use these methods, you must include the absolute link to your files:

<?php
JHtml::script(Juri::base() . 'templates/custom/js/sample.js', $mootools);
JHtml::stylesheet(Juri::base() . 'templates/custom/css/style.js');
?>

Using these functions, Joomla! will take care of any additional requirements. For example, if your Javascript requires Mootools, setting $mootools = true will automatically ensure that Mootools is loaded, if it has not already been done.

However, the above functions will not be flexible enough for every scenario, and so it is possible to tap into the underlying functionality instead. Of course, you will also need to manually code some of the steps that would be done automatically using the functions above.

First, get a reference to the current document object:

$document = JFactory::getDocument();

For a stylesheet, use this code:

$document->addStyleSheet($url);

To add a Javascript file, use this code:

$document->addScript($url);

Note this will **NOT** include Mootools or jQuery. If your script requires Mootools or jQuery see Javascript_Frameworks for full details on how to include them (note jQuery can only be included natively on Joomla 3.0+).

Inserting from within a PHP file

If your Javascript or CSS are generated using PHP, you can add the script or stylesheet directly into the head of your document:

$document = JFactory::getDocument();
 
// Add Javascript
$document->addScriptDeclaration('
    window.event("domready", function() {
        alert("An inline JavaScript Declaration");
    });
');
 
// Add styles
$style = 'body {'
        . 'background: #00ff00;'
        . 'color: rgb(0,0,255);'
        . '}'; 
$document->addStyleDeclaration($style);

Javascript Examples

For example, the following code is used to define a custom tool tip that takes advantage of mootools.

function getToolTipJS($toolTipVarName, $toolTipClassName){
    $javascript = 'window.addEvent(\"domready\", function(){' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t"  .'var $toolTipVarName = new Tips($$("' . $toolTipVarName .'"), {' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'className: "' .$toolTipClassName .'",' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'initialize: function(){' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx = new Fx.Style(this.toolTip, "opacity", {duration: 500, wait: false}).set(0);' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'},' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'onShow: function(toolTip){' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx.start(1);' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'},' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'onHide: function(toolTip) {' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t\t"    .'this.fx.start(0);' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t\t"   .'}' ."\n";
    $javascript .= "\t"  .'});' ."\n";
    $javascript .= '});' ."\n\n";
    return $javascript;
}
 
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
$document->addStyleSheet("/joomla/components/com_mycustomcomponent/css/mytooltip.css",'text/css',"screen");
$document->addScriptDeclaration(getToolTipJS("mytool","MyToolTip"));

Note that in order for this Javascript to be functionally useful, it would be necessary to include the appropriate class name in the HTML, as well as providing the mytooltip.css file. Both are outside the scope of this article.

CSS Examples

This is also useful if your inserting a parameter/form field of CSS into your code. For example in a module, you might want a user to choose to call the colour of the border. After calling the parameter/form field and assigning it a variable $bordercolor in mod_example.php. Then in tmpl/default.php you can include the following

$document = JFactory::getDocument();
$document->addStyleSheet(JURI::base() . 'modules/mod_example/css/mod_example.css');
$style = '#example {
        border-color:#' . $bordercolor . ';
        }';
$document->addStyleDeclaration( $style );

Here mod_example.css contains the CSS file of any non-parameter based styles. Then the bordercolor parameter/form field is added in separately

Add Custom Tag

There will be some occasions where even these functions are not flexible enough, as they are limited to writing the contents of <script /> or <style /> tags, and cannot add anything outside those tags. One example would be the inclusion of a stylesheet link within conditional comments, so that it is picked up only by Internet Explorer 6 and earlier. To do this, use $document->addCustomTag:

$stylelink = '<!--[if lte IE 6]>' ."\n";
$stylelink .= '<link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/IEonly.css" />' ."\n";
$stylelink .= '<![endif]-->' ."\n";
 
$document = JFactory::getDocument();
$document->addCustomTag($stylelink);