How do Windows file permissions work?
From Joomla! Documentation
Joomla and Windows File Permissions - Explanation
For those of you that are either developing or delivering your Joomla! websites from a Windows environment, it is sometimes difficult to obtain relevant information regarding permissions. Unfortunately, it is a fact that most Web-Serving is offered under Unix and that Unix is pretty well documented within this environment. Hopefully, the following information will go some way to clear up any confusion and provide a little guidance as well.
Windows Web Server Overview
First, let's discuss the differences between servers. In general, most Windows folks appear to be using either Apache (Win32) or Microsoft IIS. These two web servers operate very differently and utilize slightly different models of delivery. Apache (Win32) generally runs on the host computer as the User that it was installed under, whereas IIS installs under a specific user but will run under a newly installed user IUSR_.
By default, Unix tends to only give full access to the owning user to files and directories. In contrast, Windows by default will also assign the group Everyone full permissions. The first thing any good Windows Administrator will do is remove the rights of the Everyone group to improve security. For local PC testing, this is probably not necessary, but explains why, if Everyone is not removed and you run some form of permissions check script or the Joomla! Pre-Installation check, you will have full Read, Write and Execute permissions. You are acquiring the rights of the Everyone group.
Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS)
IIS comes in two main flavors, PWS (Personal WebServer), and IIS (Internet Information Server). Essentially these are the same application. PWS is just a cut-down version of IIS designed for desktop environments, whereas IIS is designed for Server environments. PWS limits you to a single main website, so your application installations will generally be in sub-directories of the main website. IIS, on the other hand, provides the functionality for Virtual Hosts to be run from these directories, delivering multi-site capability.
Due to the different functionality limitations, PWS does not have the Permissions Wizard as it is determined to not be needed. Only one user will be using the PWS Server. In IIS, many users will be using the Server, thus differing permission assignments are needed.
Once the Everyone account is removed, Windows IIS is now left with the IUSR_* account having top-level rights to the Web-Server directories. A permissions check now should yield different results. Only the IUSR_* account has full permissions and other users should acquire either Read Only or no rights. Rights are determined by which other users have been assigned which rights to the IIS directories manually.
Assigning permissions in Windows is reasonably straight forward, but can be a little confusing at times. Right-Click on the appropriate folder or file. Selecting Properties or Sharing and Security will enter the Windows Security Management pane. Selecting (click once) any user name listed will display the rights that user has in the bottom half of the pane. Some rights might be greyed out. These are unavailable, either because the current user (you are logged in as) does not have high enough permissions to alter them, or they are inherited from the directory above and have been set to use that higher level directory's permissions. (This is generally the default mechanism.)
As you can see, Windows utilizes the following Permissions/Rights scheme:
|1||Full Control||Allows: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7|
|2||Modify||Allows: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6|
|3||Read & Execute||Allows: 3, 4|
|4||List Folder Contents||Allows: 4 (but cannot run programs)|
|5||Read||Allows: 5 (Implies: 4)|
|6||Write||Allows: 6 (Implies: 4 )|
|7||Special Permissions||Allows: Combinations|
Windows File Permissions Properties
Windows file permissions can be seen as having similar properties as UNIX or Linux file (Modes) permissions. They are just represented differently. For example, if you are primarily a Unix/Linux user, you are probably used to having permissions represented as 644/666 755/777, instead of being described in the terms above. So, when you use 644, this means:
- The owner of this file can read and write to it.
- The owner's group can read the file.
- Everyone else can read the file.
Note Windows and Unix permissions (Access Control Lists) do not equate exactly; Windows does not use the Groups mechanism in the same manner. For this discussion and in regards to the web hosting environment, they can be equated. Ah, but in Windows Groups are not used and Everyone should have been removed. This is where Windows and Unix do not quite equate, but what can be done is to match or correlate equivalent meanings.
This outline is not really going to provide you with a Windows- or an NTFS-specific permissions guide but more of an understanding of how the commonly quoted numbered UNIX/Linux style permissions correlate on a machine with an NTFS file system. The files that are placed in the www or public_html root folder, or whatever directory your site (www.domain.com or localhost) points to on your hard drive should be owned by your user account, but only if that user is not what is considered as a privileged user such as Administrator on Windows or root on UNIX/Linux. These accounts allow way too much access and should never be used for everyday use.
Commonly used security practices suggest that all files should have the following permissions:
- Owner Read & Write
- Group Read Only
- Others Read Only
All directories/folders should have the following permissions:
- Owner Read, Write & Execute
- Group Read & Execute
- Others Read & Execute
Arguably, this is not necessarily optimum security, but a balance must be struck between security, functionality and maintainability. Windows, unlike Unix, does not maintain a single ACL for Execute, but simply provides Read & Execute combined, which does not imply Write. The Read & Execute ACL does however implies List Directory Contents. Therefore, if you have only Read & Write permissions on a directory but no Execute you will not be able to see the contents of the directory and may also have problems when attempting to run the file through a web browser. A little understanding of UNIX/Linux permissions is required to fully equate/correlate them to Windows permissions. The following table should assist:
|Unix Mode||Windows ACL||Comments|
|7||Modify||Read, Write & Execute, you should be the owner of this file|
|6||Read & Write|
|5||Read & Execute||Used for most applications|
|4||Read Only||Security through obscurity is not a good practice|
|3||Write & Execute||Not available through Windows, unless Special Permissions is used; not commonly used|
|2||Write Only||Not available through Windows, unless Special Permissions is used; not commonly used|
|1||Execute Only||Not available through Windows, unless Special Permissions is used; not commonly used|
In comparison to Unix modes, when you see something like 644, break that into three elements:
6 : 4 : 4
The first number represents the Owner permissions, the second represents the Group permissions and the third, the Other permissions. The Windows equivalent would be:
- Owner (6) Read & Write
- Group (4) Read Only
- Others(4) Read Only
Hopefully, this example provides some insight into how to correlate Unix Modes/Permissions into Windows Permissions/ACLs. This document does not include more complex subjects such as Effective, Inherited, or Special permissions. Despite Windows ease of use, Microsoft's Permissions and ACL mechanisms are actually reasonably complex and very extensive, but this might just give you a quick reference to try and alleviate some of the confusion surrounding Unix and Windows Permissions translations.